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Solar power

About: Solar power is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 22014 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 267243 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The biggest challenge is whether or not the goals need to be met to fully utilize solar energy for the global energy demand can be met in a costeffective way on the terawatt scale.
Abstract: Energy harvested directly from sunlight offers a desirable approach toward fulfilling, with minimal environmental impact, the need for clean energy. Solar energy is a decentralized and inexhaustible natural resource, with the magnitude of the available solar power striking the earth’s surface at any one instant equal to 130 million 500 MW power plants.1 However, several important goals need to be met to fully utilize solar energy for the global energy demand. First, the means for solar energy conversion, storage, and distribution should be environmentally benign, i.e. protecting ecosystems instead of steadily weakening them. The next important goal is to provide a stable, constant energy flux. Due to the daily and seasonal variability in renewable energy sources such as sunlight, energy harvested from the sun needs to be efficiently converted into chemical fuel that can be stored, transported, and used upon demand. The biggest challenge is whether or not these goals can be met in a costeffective way on the terawatt scale.2

7,163 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Biomass is an important feedstock for the renewable production of fuels, chemicals, and energy, and it recently surpassed hydroelectric energy as the largest domestic source of renewable energy.
Abstract: Biomass is an important feedstock for the renewable production of fuels, chemicals, and energy. As of 2005, over 3% of the total energy consumption in the United States was supplied by biomass, and it recently surpassed hydroelectric energy as the largest domestic source of renewable energy. Similarly, the European Union received 66.1% of its renewable energy from biomass, which thus surpassed the total combined contribution from hydropower, wind power, geothermal energy, and solar power. In addition to energy, the production of chemicals from biomass is also essential; indeed, the only renewable source of liquid transportation fuels is currently obtained from biomass.

3,137 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Organic solar cell research has developed during the past 30 years, but especially in the last decade it has attracted scientific and economic interest triggered by a rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies. This was achieved by the introduction of new materials, improved materials engineering, and more sophisticated device structures. Today, solar power conversion efficiencies in excess of 3% have been accomplished with several device concepts. Though efficiencies of these thin-film organicdevices have not yet reached those of their inorganic counterparts (η ≈ 10–20%); the perspective of cheap production (employing, e.g., roll-to-roll processes) drives the development of organic photovoltaic devices further in a dynamic way. The two competitive production techniques used today are either wet solution processing or dry thermal evaporation of the organic constituents. The field of organic solar cells profited well from the development of light-emitting diodes based on similar technologies, which have entered the market recently. We review here the current status of the field of organic solar cells and discuss different production technologies as well as study the important parameters to improve their performance.

2,388 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Over the last 12 months, we have witnessed an unexpected breakthrough and rapid evolution in the field of emerging photovoltaics, with the realization of highly efficient solid-state hybrid solar cells based on organometal trihalide perovskite absorbers. In this Perspective, the steps that have led to this discovery are discussed, and the future of this rapidly advancing concept have been considered. It is likely that the next few years of solar research will advance this technology to the very highest efficiencies while retaining the very lowest cost and embodied energy. Provided that the stability of the perovskite-based technology can be proven, we will witness the emergence of a contender for ultimately low-cost solar power.

2,207 citations

Gilbert M. Masters1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2004
Abstract: Preface.1 Basic Electric and Magnetic Circuits.1.1 Introduction to Electric Circuits.1.2 Definitions of Key Electrical Quantities.1.3 Idealized Voltage and Current Sources.1.4 Electrical Resistance.1.5 Capacitance.1.6 Magnetic Circuits.1.7 Inductance.1.8 Transformers.2 Fundamentals of Electric Power.2.1 Effective Values of Voltage and Current.2.2 Idealized Components Subjected to Sinusoidal Voltages.2.3 Power Factor.2.4 The Power Triangle and Power Factor Correction.2.5 Three-Wire, Single-Phase Residential Wiring.2.6 Three-Phase Systems.2.7 Power Supplies.2.8 Power Quality.3 The Electric Power Industry.3.1 The Early Pioneers: Edison, Westinghouse, and Insull.3.2 The Electric Utility Industry Today.3.3 Polyphase Synchronous Generators.3.4 Carnot Efficiency for Heat Engines.3.5 Steam-Cycle Power Plants.3.6 Combustion Gas Turbines.3.7 Combined-Cycle Power Plants.3.8 Gas Turbines and Combined-Cycle Cogeneration.3.9 Baseload, Intermediate and Peaking Power Plants.3.10 Transmission and Distribution.3.11 The Regulatory Side of Electric Power.3.12 The Emergence of Competitive Markets.4 Distributed Generation.4.1 Electricity Generation in Transition.4.2 Distributed Generation with Fossil Fuels.4.3 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Technologies.4.4 Biomass for Electricity.4.5 Micro-Hydropower Systems.4.6 Fuel Cells.4.6.7 Electrical Characteristics of Real Fuel Cells.4.6.8 Types of Fuel Cells.4.6.9 Hydrogen Production.5 Economics of Distributed Resources.5.1 Distributed Resources (DR).5.2 Electric Utility Rate Structures.5.3 Energy Economics.5.4 Energy Conservation Supply Curves.5.5 Combined Heat and Power (CHP).5.6 Cooling, Heating, and Cogeneration.5.7 Distributed Benefits.5.8 Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and Demand-Side Management (DSM).6 Wind Power Systems.6.1 Historical Development of Wind Power.6.2 Types of Wind Turbines.6.3 Power in the Wind.6.4 Impact of Tower Height.6.5 Maximum Rotor Efficiency.6.6 Wind Turbine Generators.6.7 Speed Control for Maximum Power.6.8 Average Power in the Wind.6.9 Simple Estimates of Wind Turbine Energy.6.10 Specific Wind Turbine Performance Calculations.6.11 Wind Turbine Economics.7 The Solar Resource.7.1 The Solar Spectrum.7.2 The Earth's Orbit.7.3 Altitude Angle of the Sun at Solar Noon.7.4 Solar Position at any Time of Day.7.5 Sun Path Diagrams for Shading Analysis.7.6 Solar Time and Civil (Clock) Time.7.7 Sunrise and Sunset.7.8 Clear Sky Direct-Beam Radiation.7.9 Total Clear Sky Insolation on a Collecting Surface.7.10 Monthly Clear-Sky Insolation.7.11 Solar Radiation Measurements.7.12 Average Monthly Insolation.8 Photovoltaic Materials and Electrical Characteristics.8.1 Introduction.8.2 Basic Semiconductor Physics.8.3 A Generic Photovoltaic Cell.8.4 From Cells to Modules to Arrays.8.5 The PV I -V Curve Under Standard Test Conditions (STC).8.6 Impacts of Temperature and Insolation on I -V Curves.8.7 Shading impacts on I-V curves.8.8 Crystalline Silicon Technologies.8.9 Thin-Film Photovoltaics.9 Photovoltaic Systems.9.1 Introduction to the Major Photovoltaic System Types.9.2 Current-Voltage Curves for Loads.9.3 Grid-Connected Systems.9.4 Grid-Connected PV System Economics.9.5 Stand-Alone PV Systems.9.6 PV-Powered Water Pumping.APPENDIX A: Useful Conversion Factors.APPENDIX B: Sun-Path Diagrams.APPENDIX C: Hourly Clear-Sky Insolation Tables.APPENDIX D: Monthly Clear-Sky Insolation Tables.APPENDIX E: Solar Insolation Tables byCity.APPENDIX F: Maps of Solar Insolation.Index.

1,821 citations

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