About: Solid fuel is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 9931 publications have been published within this topic receiving 100587 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a review of thermal conversion processes and particularly the reactors that have been developed to provide the necessary conditions to optimise performance is presented, and the main technical and non-technical barriers to implementation are identified.
Abstract: Bio-energy is now accepted as having the potential to provide the major part of the projected renewable energy provisions of the future. There are three main routes to providing these bio-fuels—biological conversion, physical conversion and thermal conversion—all of which employ a range of chemical reactors configurations and designs. This review concentrates on thermal conversion processes and particularly the reactors that have been developed to provide the necessary conditions to optimise performance. A number of primary and secondary products can be derived as gas, liquid and solid fuels and electricity as well as a considerable number of chemicals. The basic conversion processes are summarised with their products and the main technical and non-technical barriers to implementation are identified.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review the many possible technological pathways for recycling CO2 into fuels using renewable or nuclear energy, considering three stages: CO2 capture, H2O and CO2 dissociation, and fuel synthesis.
Abstract: To improve the sustainability of transportation, a major goal is the replacement of conventional petroleum-based fuels with more sustainable fuels that can be used in the existing infrastructure (fuel distribution and vehicles). While fossil-derived synthetic fuels (e.g. coal derived liquid fuels) and biofuels have received the most attention, similar hydrocarbons can be produced without using fossil fuels or biomass. Using renewable and/or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into liquid hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse of fuel combustion). Capture of CO2 from the atmosphere would enable a closed-loop carbon-neutral fuel cycle. This article critically reviews the many possible technological pathways for recycling CO2 into fuels using renewable or nuclear energy, considering three stages—CO2 capture, H2O and CO2 dissociation, and fuel synthesis. Dissociation methods include thermolysis, thermochemical cycles, electrolysis, and photoelectrolysis of CO2 and/or H2O. High temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 makes very efficient use of electricity and heat (near-100% electricity-to-syngas efficiency), provides high reaction rates, and directly produces syngas (CO/H2 mixture) for use in conventional catalytic fuel synthesis reactors. Capturing CO2 from the atmosphere using a solid sorbent, electrolyzing H2O and CO2 in solid oxide electrolysis cells to yield syngas, and converting the syngas to gasoline or diesel by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is identified as one of the most promising, feasible routes. An analysis of the energy balance and economics of this CO2 recycling process is presented. We estimate that the full system can feasibly operate at 70% electricity-to-liquid fuel efficiency (higher heating value basis) and the price of electricity needed to produce synthetic gasoline at U.S.D$ 2/gal ($ 0.53/L) is 2–3 U.S. cents/kWh. For $ 3/gal ($ 0.78/L) gasoline, electricity at 4–5 cents/kWh is needed. In some regions that have inexpensive renewable electricity, such as Iceland, fuel production may already be economical. The dominant costs of the process are the electricity cost and the capital cost of the electrolyzer, and this capital cost is significantly increased when operating intermittently (on renewable power sources such as solar and wind). The potential of this CO2 recycling process is assessed, in terms of what technological progress is needed to achieve large-scale, economically competitive production of sustainable fuels by this method.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined torrefaction in nitrogen of two energy crops, reed canary grass and short rotation willow coppice (SRC), and a residue, wheat straw.
Abstract: Torrefaction is a treatment which serves to improve the properties of biomass in relation to thermochemical processing techniques for energy generation; for example, combustion, co-combustion with coal or gasification. The topic has gathered interest in the past two decades but further understanding is required for optimisation of the process thus enhancing economic efficiency, which is crucial to the success of the treatment commercially and within industry. In particular there is a noticeable gap in current literature regarding the combustion properties of torrefied biomass. This study examines torrefaction in nitrogen of two energy crops, reed canary grass and short rotation willow coppice (SRC), and a residue, wheat straw. Product evolution and mass and energy losses during torrefaction are measured using a range of laboratory scale methods. Experiments at different torrefaction conditions were undertaken to examine optimization of the process for the three fuels. Progress of torrefaction was also followed by chemical analysis (C, H, N, O, ash), and it was seen that the characters of the biomass fuels begin to resemble those of low rank coals in terms of the van Krevelen coal rank parameter. In addition, the results indicate that the volatile component of biomass is both reduced and altered producing a more thermally stable product, but also one that produces greater heats of reaction during combustion. The difference between the mass and energy yield was shown to improve for the higher torrefaction temperatures investigated. The combustion behaviour of raw and torrefied fuels was studied further by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and also, for willow, by suspending individual particles in a methane–air flame and following the progress of combustion by high-speed video. It is shown that both volatile and char combustion of the torrefied sample become more exothermic compared to the raw fuels, and that depending on the severity of the torrefaction conditions, the torrefied fuel can contain up to 96% of the original energy content on a mass basis. Upon exposure to a methane-air flame, torrefied willow ignites more quickly, presumably because its low moisture content means that it heats faster. Torrefied particles also begin char combustion quicker than the raw SRC particles, although char combustion is slower for the torrefied fuel.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels is presented, where the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal, industrial and animal waste material.
Abstract: This paper reviews literature on co-firing of coal with biomass fuels. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal, industrial and animal waste material. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the combustion of coal and biomass fuels are presented. Different classes of co-firing methods are identified. Experimental results for a large variety of fuel blends and conditions are presented. Numerical studies are also discussed. Biomass and coal blend combustion is a promising combustion technology; however, significant development work is required before large-scale implementation can be realized. Issues related to successful implementation of coal biomass blend combustion are identified.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of fuel characteristics, devolatilization conditions and combustion mode on the oxidation selectivity towards NO and N 2 is evaluated and even under idealized conditions, such as a laminar pulverized-fuel flame, the governing mechanisms for fuel nitrogen conversion are not completely understood.
Abstract: Understanding of the chemical and physical processes that govern formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) in combustion of solid fuels continues to be a challenge. Even though this area has been the subject of extensive research over the last three decades, there are still unresolved issues that may limit the potential of primary measures for NO x control. In most solid fuel fired systems oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen constitutes the dominating source of nitrogen oxides. The present paper reviews some fundamental aspects of fuel nitrogen conversion in these systems, emphasizing mostly combustion of coal since most previous work deal with this fuel. However, also results on biomass combustion is discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous pathways in fuel NO formation and destruction are discussed and the effect of fuel characteristics, devolatilization conditions and combustion mode on the oxidation selectivity towards NO and N 2 is evaluated. Results indicate that even under idealized conditions, such as a laminar pulverized-fuel flame, the governing mechanisms for fuel nitrogen conversion are not completely understood. Light gases, tar, char and soot may all be important vehicles for fuel-N conversion, with their relative importance depending on fuel rank and reaction conditions. Oxygen availability and fuel-nitrogen level are major parameters determining the oxidation selectivity of fuel-N towards NO and N 2 , but also the ability of char and soot to reduce NO is potentially important. The impact of fuel/oxidizer mixing pattern on NO formation appears to be less important in solid-fuel flames than in homogeneous flames.