About: Solstice is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 800 publications have been published within this topic receiving 18018 citations.
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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a global empirical model for the F region equatorial vertical drifts based on combined incoherent scatter radar observations at Jicamarca and Ion Drift Meter observations on board the Atmospheric Explorer E satellite.
Abstract: We present the first global empirical model for the quiet time F region equatorial vertical drifts based on combined incoherent scatter radar observations at Jicamarca and Ion Drift Meter observations on board the Atmospheric Explorer E satellite. This analytical model, based on products of cubic-B splines and with nearly conservative electric fields, describes the diurnal and seasonal variations of the equatorial vertical drifts for a continuous range of all longitudes and solar flux values. Our results indicate that during solar minimum, the evening prereversal velocity enhancement exhibits only small longitudinal variations during equinox with amplitudes of about 15–20 m/s, is observed only in the American sector during December solstice with amplitudes of about 5–10 m/s, and is absent at all longitudes during June solstice. The solar minimum evening reversal times are fairly independent of longitude except during December solstice. During solar maximum, the evening upward vertical drifts and reversal times exhibit large longitudinal variations, particularly during the solstices. In this case, for a solar flux index of 180, the June solstice evening peak drifts maximize in the Pacific region with drift amplitudes of up to 35 m/s, whereas the December solstice velocities maximize in the American sector with comparable magnitudes. The equinoctial peak velocities vary between about 35 and 45 m/s. The morning reversal times and the daytime drifts exhibit only small variations with the phase of the solar cycle. The daytime drifts have largest amplitudes between about 0900 and 1100 LT with typical values of 25–30 m/s. We also show that our model results are in good agreement with other equatorial ground-based observations over India, Brazil, and Kwajalein.
TL;DR: In this article, the combined analysis of microwave temperature and water profiling of the Mars atmosphere indicates that low- to mid-latitude water vapor saturation typically occurs at much lower altitudes (below 10 km) during northern spring/summer than observed during this Mars aphelion season in the dusty, warm period of Viking observations (above 25 km).
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used five years of measurements on board the ROCSAT-1 satellite to develop a detailed quiet time global empirical model for equatorial F region vertical plasma drifts, which describes the local time, seasonal and longitudinal dependence of the vertical drifts for an altitude of 600 km under moderate and high solar flux conditions.
Abstract:  We have used five years of measurements on board the ROCSAT-1 satellite to develop a detailed quiet time global empirical model for equatorial F region vertical plasma drifts. This model describes the local time, seasonal and longitudinal dependence of the vertical drifts for an altitude of 600 km under moderate and high solar flux conditions. The model results are in excellent agreement with measurements from the Jicamarca radar and also from other ground-based and in situ probes. We show that the longitudinal dependence of the daytime and nighttime vertical drifts is much stronger than reported earlier, especially during December and June solstice. The late night downward drift velocities are larger in the eastern than in the western hemisphere at all seasons, the morning and afternoon December solstice drifts have significantly different longitudinal dependence, and the daytime upward drifts have strong wave number-four signatures during equinox and June solstice. The largest evening upward drifts occur during equinox and December solstice near the American sector. The longitudinal variations of the evening prereversal velocity peaks during December and June solstice are anti-correlated, which further indicates the importance of conductivity effects on the electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere.
TL;DR: In this article, a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere computational model (CTIP) was proposed to explain the variations in the peak F2-layer electron density (NmF2) at midlatitudes.
Abstract: The companion paper by Zou et al. shows that the annual and semiannual variations in the peak F2-layer electron density (NmF2) at midlatitudes can be reproduced by a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere computational model (CTIP), without recourse to external influences such as the solar wind, or waves and tides originating in the lower atmosphere. The present work discusses the physics in greater detail. It shows that noon NmF2 is closely related to the ambient atomic/molecular concentration ratio, and suggests that the variations of NmF2 with geographic and magnetic longitude are largely due to the geometry of the auroral ovals. It also concludes that electric fields play no important part in the dynamics of the midlatitude thermosphere. Our modelling leads to the following picture of the global three-dimensional thermospheric circulation which, as envisaged by Duncan, is the key to explaining the F2-layer variations. At solstice, the almost continuous solar input at high summer latitudes drives a prevailing summer-to-winter wind, with upwelling at low latitudes and throughout most of the summer hemisphere, and a zone of downwelling in the winter hemisphere, just equatorward of the auroral oval. These motions affect thermospheric composition more than do the alternating day/night (up-and-down) motions at equinox. As a result, the thermosphere as a whole is more molecular at solstice than at equinox. Taken in conjunction with the well-known relation of F2-layer electron density to the atomic/molecular ratio in the neutral air, this explains the F2-layer semiannual effect in NmF2 that prevails at low and middle latitudes. At higher midlatitudes, the seasonal behaviour depends on the geographic latitude of the winter downwelling zone, though the effect of the composition changes is modified by the large solar zenith angle at midwinter. The zenith angle effect is especially important in longitudes far from the magnetic poles. Here, the downwelling occurs at high geographic latitudes, where the zenith angle effect becomes overwhelming and causes a midwinter depression of electron density, despite the enhanced atomic/molecular ratio. This leads to a semiannual variation of NmF2. A different situation exists in winter at longitudes near the magnetic poles, where the downwelling occurs at relatively low geographic latitudes so that solar radiation is strong enough to produce large values of NmF2. This circulation-driven mechanism provides a reasonably complete explanation of the observed pattern of F2 layer annual and semiannual quiet-day variations.
TL;DR: The main objective for the Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) is to accurately measure the full disk solar spectral irradiance in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region over a long time period as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The main objective for the Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) is to accurately measure the full disk solar spectral irradiance in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region over a long time period. To meet this objective, SOLSTICE has the unique capability of making routine observations of the UV radiation from a set of early-type stars, using the identical optical elements and detectors employed for the solar observations. The stars selected for this calibration are assumed, on the basis of stellar evolution theory, to be extremely stable in the UV spectral region. Moreover, it is the average flux from a number of stars, perhaps from as many as 25, that is assumed to be stable. The SOLSTICE 1 is on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), and the overall design and operation of the instrument are discussed. The quality of the solar and stellar data is extremely high and preliminary results indicate that the technique is working well.
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