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Solvent

About: Solvent is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 54272 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 728954 citation(s). The topic is also known as: solvents.


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MonographDOI
12 Dec 2002
Abstract: INTRODUCTION SOLUTE-SOLVENT INTERACTIONS Solutions Intermolecular Forces Solvation Preferential Solvation Micellar Solvation (Solubilization) Ionization and Dissociation CLASSIFICATION OF SOLVENTS Classification of Solvents According to Chemical Constitution Classification of Solvents Using Physical Constants Classification of Solvents in Terms of Acid-Base Behaviour Classification of Solvents in Terms of Specific Solute/Solvent Interactions Classification of Solvents Using Multivariate Statistical Methods SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE POSITION OF HOMOGENEOUS CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIA General Remarks Solvent Effects on Acid/Base Equilibria Solvent Effects on Tautomeric Equilibria Solvent Effects on other Equilibria SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE RATES OF HOMOGENEOUS CHEMICAL REACTIONS General Remarks Gas-Phase Reactivities Qualitative Theory of Solvent Effects on Reaction Rates Quantitative Theories of Solvent Effects on Reaction Rates Specific Solvation Effects on Reaction Rates SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE ABSORPTION SPECTRA OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS General Remarks Solvent Effects on UV/Vis Spectra Solvent Effects on Infrared Spectra Solvent Effects on Electron Spin Resonance Spectra Solvent Effects on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra EMPIRICAL PARAMETERS OF SOLVENT POLARITY Linear Gibbs Energy Relationships Empirical Parameters of Solvent Polarity from Equilibrium Measurements Empirical Parameters of Solvent Polarity from Kinetic Measurements Empirical Parameters of Solvent Polarity from Spectroscopic Measurements Empirical Parameters of Solvent Polarity from Other Measurements Interrelation and Application of Solvent Polarity Parameters Multiparameter Approaches SOLVENTS AND GREEN CHEMISTRY Green Chemistry Reduction of Solvent Use Green Solvent Selection Non-Traditional Solvents Outlook APPENDIX: PROPERTIES, PURIFICATION, AND USE OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS Physical Properties Purification of Organic Solvents Spectroscopic Solvents Solvents as Reaction Media Solvents for Recrystallization Solvents for Extraction and Partitioning (Distribution) Solvents for Adsorption Chromatography Solvents for Acid/Base Titrations in Non-Aqueous Media Solvents for Electrochemistry Toxicity of Organic Solvents

5,329 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Eutectic mixtures of urea and a range of quaternary ammonium salts are liquid at ambient temperatures and have interesting solvent properties.
Abstract: Eutectic mixtures of urea and a range of quaternary ammonium salts are liquid at ambient temperatures and have interesting solvent properties.

2,632 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This procedure provides a nonhazardous alternative to distillations and vacuum transfers and does not require undue supervision or cooling, yet allows for the rapid collection of large quantities of extremely pure solvents on demand.
Abstract: This contribution describes a general method for the purification of solvents for use with air and moisture sensitive reactions. This procedure provides a nonhazardous alternative to distillations and vacuum transfers and does not require undue supervision or cooling, yet allows for the rapid collection of large quantities of extremely pure solvents on demand. Solvents are rigorously degassed in 18 L reservoirs and passed through two sequential purification columns. Protic contaminants are removed with activated alumina, while a supported copper catalyst is used to remove trace oxygen from hydrocarbons. The purification system is interfaced with either a glove box or Schlenk manifold for the anhydrous/anaerobic collection of solvents. Solvents purified by this method and tested with stock solutions of sodium benzophenone ketyl or titanocene dichloride/zinc dust are free of oxygen at least to the ppm level. Furthermore, this system may be used for the in-line purification of gases and is easily scaled down...

2,580 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An improved method for extracting the lipids from tissues consists of the use of hexane:isopropanol, followed by a wash of the extract with aqueous sodium sulfate to remove nonlipid contaminants.
Abstract: An improved method for extracting the lipids from tissues consists of the use of hexane:isopropanol, followed by a wash of the extract with aqueous sodium sulfate to remove nonlipid contaminants. This method has a number of advantages over the common usage of chloroform:methanol. The solvents are somewhat less toxic, interference in processing by proteolipid protein contamination is avoided, the two phase separate rapidly during the washing step, the solvent density is low enough to permit centrifugation of the homogenate as an alternative to filtration, the solvents are cheaper, and the washed extract can be applied to a chromatographic column with continuous monitoring of the elution in the far ultraviolet region. The new extraction method is inefficient for the extraction of gangliosides.

2,262 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper describes the compatibility of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with organic solvents; this compatibility is important in considering the potential of PDMS-based microfluidic devices in a number of applications, including that of microreactors for organic reactions.
Abstract: This paper describes the compatibility of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with organic solvents; this compatibility is important in considering the potential of PDMS-based microfluidic devices in a number of applications, including that of microreactors for organic reactions. We considered three aspects of compatibility: the swelling of PDMS in a solvent, the partitioning of solutes between a solvent and PDMS, and the dissolution of PDMS oligomers in a solvent. Of these three parameters that determine the compatibility of PDMS with a solvent, the swelling of PDMS had the greatest influence. Experimental measurements of swelling were correlated with the solubility parameter, δ (cal1/2 cm-3/2), which is based on the cohesive energy densities, c (cal/cm3), of the materials. Solvents that swelled PDMS the least included water, nitromethane, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, perfluorotributylamine, perfluorodecalin, acetonitrile, and propylene carbonate; solvents that swelled PDMS the most were diisopropylam...

2,226 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202234
2021934
20201,327
20191,639
20181,710
20171,754