About: Somatic embryogenesis is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 10358 publications have been published within this topic receiving 241290 citations. The topic is also known as: somatic embriogenesis.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Frequentencies of friable-callus initiation and somatic-embryoid formation increased linearly with addition to N6 medium, and L-Glutamine was not a satisfactory substitute for L-proline.
Abstract: Friable, embryogenic maize (Zea mays L.), inbred line A188, callus was established and maintained for more than one year without apparent loss of friability or embryogenic potential. Embryoid development was abundant in these cultures and plants were easily regenerated. Frequencies of friable-callus initiation and somatic-embryoid formation increased linearly with addition to N6 medium (C.C. Chu et al. 1975, Sci. Sin. [Peking] 18, 659–668) of up to 25 mM L-proline. Proline additions up to 9 mM to MS medium (inorganic elements of T. Murashige and F. Skoog 1962, Physiol. Plant. 15, 473–497, plus 0.5 mg 1-1 thiamine hydrochloride and 150 mg 1-1 L-asparagine monohydrate) did not stimulate embryoid formation. A major part of the difference between MS and N6 media could be attributed to their respective inorganic nitrogen components. L-Glutamine was not a satisfactory substitute for L-proline. Of 111 regenerated plants grown to maturity from three independent friable, embryogenic cell lines ranging in age from three to seven months, only four plants were abnormal based on morphology and pollen sterility. Seed was produced by 77% of the regenerated plants.
TL;DR: Thidizuron (TDZ) is among the most active cytokinin-like substances for woody plant tissue culture and facilitates efficient micropropagation of many recalcitrant woody species.
Abstract: Thidizuron (TDZ) is among the most active cytokinin-like substances for woody plant tissue culture. It facilitates efficient micropropagation of many recalcitrant woody species. Low concentrations (<1 µM) can induce greater axillary proliferation than many other cytokinins; however, TDZ may inhibit shoot elongation. In some cases it is necessary to transfer shoots to an elongation medium containing a lower level of TDZ and/or a less active cytokinin. At concentrations higher than 1 µM, TDZ can stimulate the formation of callus, adventitious shoots or somatic embryos. Subsequent rooting of microshoots may be unaffected or slightly inhibited by prior exposure to TDZ. The main undesirable side effect of TDZ is that cultures of some species occasionally form fasciated shoots. The high cytokinin activity and positive response of woody species to TDZ have established it as among the most active cytokinins forin vitro manipulation of many woody species.
TL;DR: Tissue-culture techniques are now available to obtain callus cultures capable of plant regeneration from immature embryos of most maize genotypes, and plant regeneration was noted in many commercially important inbreds.
Abstract: In the summer of 1983, immature embryos from 101 selfed inbred lines and germplasm stocks of Zea mays L. were examined for their ability to produce callus cultures capable of plant regeneration (regenerable cultures) using a medium with which some limited success had previously been obtained. Forty-nine of the genotypes (49%) produced callus which visually appeared similar to callus previously cultured and shown to be capable of plant regeneration. After five months, 38 of these genotypes were alive in culture and plants were subsequently regenerated from 35 (92%) of them. No correlation was observed between plant regeneration and callus growth rate, the vivipary mutation (genes vp1, 2, 5, 7, 8 and 9), or published vigor ratings based on K+ uptake by roots. When F1 hybrid embryos were cultured, 97% of the hybrids having at least one regenerable parent also produced callus capable of plant regeneration. No regenerable cultures were obtained from any hybrid lacking a parent capable of producing a regenerable callus culture.
TL;DR: The use of somatic embryogenesis as a model system for understanding the regulation of gene expression required for the earliest developmental events in the life of a higher plant: the development of the fertilized zygote into a mature embryo is focused on.
Abstract: The ability to produce morphologically and developmentally normal embryos and, indeed, whole plants from undifferentiated somatic cells in culture, through the process of somatic embryogenesis, resides uniquely within the plant kingdom. Since the initial description of somatic embryo production from carrot callus cells more than 35 years ago (Steward et al., 1958), this unique developmental potential has been recognized both as an important pathway for the regeneration of plants from cell culture systems and as a potential model for studying early regulatory and morphogenetic events in plant embryogenesis. The last 5 to 10 years have witnessed an explosion in the number of species that can now be regenerated from cell culture into whole plants through somatic embryogenesis. The literature contains hundreds of references describing the specific manipulations required to effect somatic embryo development from a variety of agronomically and horticulturally important plants. Although this is obviously an extremely important application of the process of somatic embryogenesis, it is not the focus of this review. Rather, this review will focus on the use of somatic embryogenesis as a model system for understanding the regulation of gene expression required for the earliest developmental events in the life of a higher plant: the development of the fertilized zygote into a mature embryo. The events of fertilization and subsequent embryo development normally occur deep within maternal tissues. The early embryo is minute and is surrounded by both endosperm and maternal cells. Although the morphological description of embryo development has been extensively recorded through microscopy, molecular and biochemical analyses of early embryogenesis have been hampered significantly by this physical inaccessibility. As a consequence, we know very little about the genes that are necessary for early embryogenesis in higher plants and even less about their regulation. This is beginning to be remedied by recent intensive efforts to genetically identify genes required for early embryogenesis in model systems such as Arabidopsis and maize (see West and Harada, 1993, this issue); many interesting mutants have been identified that may provide entry points into molecular analyses of major morphogenetic events in embryogenesis. These analyses would be greatly enhanced by the availability of cell, tissue, and developmental stage-specific markers of important events in the differentiation of cells and the establishment of the major tissue systems of the plant, which occur early in embryogenesis. In addition, once genes have been identified that are essential for embryogenesis, the subsequent analysis of their regulation would be greatly facilitated by the availability of an appropriate in vitro model system that is not limited in tissue quantity or accessibility. The somatic embryo system represents just such a model system. This review will summarize the process of somatic embryogenesis and will address the strengths and limitations of somatic embryos as potential models for studying early events in plant embryo development.
TL;DR: The expression pattern of BABY BOOM in developing seeds combined with the BBM overexpression phenotype suggests a role for this gene in promoting cell proliferation and morphogenesis during embryogenesis.
Abstract: The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation and maintenance of the embryonic pathway in plants are largely unknown. To obtain more insight into these processes, we used subtractive hybridization to identify genes that are upregulated during the in vitro induction of embryo development from immature pollen grains of Brassica napus (microspore embryogenesis). One of the genes identified, BABY BOOM (BBM), shows similarity to the AP2/ERF family of transcription factors and is expressed preferentially in developing embryos and seeds. Ectopic expression of BBM in Arabidopsis and Brassica led to the spontaneous formation of somatic embryos and cotyledon-like structures on seedlings. Ectopic BBM expression induced additional pleiotropic phenotypes, including neoplastic growth, hormone-free regeneration of explants, and alterations in leaf and flower morphology. The expression pattern of BBM in developing seeds combined with the BBM overexpression phenotype suggests a role for this gene in promoting cell proliferation and morphogenesis during embryogenesis.