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Sound intensity

About: Sound intensity is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4735 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 54163 citation(s). The topic is also known as: sound energy flux density & sound power density.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Naresh Tandon1, A. ChoudhuryInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: Vibration measurement in both time and frequency domains along with signal processing techniques such as the high-frequency resonance technique have been covered and recent trends in research on the detection of defects in bearings have been included.
Abstract: A review of vibration and acoustic measurement methods for the detection of defects in rolling element bearings is presented in this paper. Detection of both localized and distributed categories of defect has been considered. An explanation for the vibration and noise generation in bearings is given. Vibration measurement in both time and frequency domains along with signal processing techniques such as the high-frequency resonance technique have been covered. Other acoustic measurement techniques such as sound pressure, sound intensity and acoustic emission have been reviewed. Recent trends in research on the detection of defects in bearings, such as the wavelet transform method and automated data processing, have also been included.

1,122 citations

David Alan Bies, Colin H. Hansen1Institutions (1)
29 Sep 2003
Abstract: Fundamentals and Basic Terminology Introduction Noise-Control Strategies Acoustic Field Variables Wave Equations Mean Square Quantities Energy Density Sound Density Sound Power Units Spectra Combining Sound Pressures Impedance Flow Resistance The Human Ear Brief Description of the Ear Mechanical Properties of the Central Partition Noise Induced Hearing Loss Subjective Response to Sound Pressure Level Instrumentation for Noise Measurement and Analysis Microphones Weighting Networks Sound Level Meters Classes of Sound Level Meter Sound Level Meter Calibration Noise Measurements Using Sound Level Meters Time-Varying Sound Noise Level Measurement Data Loggers Personal Sound Exposure Meter Recording of Noise Spectrum Analysers Intensity Meter Energy Density Sensors Sound Source Localization Criteria Introduction Hearing Loss Hearing Damage Risk Hearing Damage Risk Criteria Implementing a Hearing Conservation Program Speech Interference Criteria Psychological Effects of Noise Ambient Noise Level Specification Environmental Noise Level Criteria Environmental Noise Level Surveys Sound Sources and Outdoor Sound Propagation Introduction Simple Source Dipole Source Quadruple Source (Far-Field Approximation) Line Source Piston in an Infinite Baffle Incoherent Plane Radiator Directivity Reflection Effects Reflection and Transmission at a Plane/Two Media Interface Sound Propagation Outdoors, General Concepts Sound Power, its Use and Measurement Introduction Radiation Impedance Relation between Sound Power and Sound Pressure Radiation Field of a Sound Source Determination of Sound Power Using Intensity Measurements Determination of Sound Power Using Surface Vibration Measurements Some Uses of Sound Power Information Sound in Enclosed Spaces Introduction Low Frequencies Bound between Low-Frequency and High-Frequency Behavior High Frequencies, Statistical Analysis Transit Response Porous Sound Absorbers Panel Sound Absorbers Flat and Long Rooms Applications of Sound Absorption Auditorium Design Partitions, Enclosures and Barriers Introduction Sound Transmission through Partitions Noise Reduction vs Transmission Loss Enclosures Barriers Pipe Lagging Muffling Devices Introduction Measures of Performance Diffusers as Muffling Devices Classification of Muffling Devices Acoustic Impedance Lumped Element Devices Reactive Devices Lined Ducts Duct Bends or Elbows Unlined Ducts Effect of Duct End Reflections Duct Break-Out Noise Line Plenum Attenuator Water Injection Directivity of Exhaust Duct Vibration Control Introduction Vibration Isolation Types of Isolators Vibration Absorbers Vibration Neutralizers Vibration Measurement Damping of Vibrating Surfaces Measurement of Damping Sound Power and Sound Pressure Level Estimation Procedures Introduction Fan Noise Air Compressors Compressors for Chillers and Refrigeration Units Cooling Towers Pumps Jets Control Valves Pipe Flow Boilers Turbines Diesel and Gas-Driven Engines Furnace Noise Electric Motors Generators Transformers Gears Transportation Noise Practical Numerical Acoustics Introduction Low-Frequency Region High-Frequency Region: Statistical Energy ANalysis

529 citations

01 Jan 1973
Abstract: A Little Dynamics- Survey of Wave Types and Characteristics- Damping- Impedance and Mobility- Attenuation of Structure-Borne Sound- Sound Radiation from Structures- Generation and Measurement of Structure-Borne Sound

458 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The distribution of early reflected sound over the audience areas in concert halls is investigated, especially with respect to the shape of halls. The study is based on geometrical acoustics, using a ray tracing technique. The sound intensity is calculated by digital computer, and a graphical representation obtained. Test results for a rectangular and a fanshaped hall are given.

455 citations

12 Dec 2005
Abstract: GENERATION AND RADIATION OF NOISE IN ELECTRICAL MACHINES Vibration, Sound, and Noise Sound Waves Sources of Noise in Electrical Machines Energy Conversion Process Noise Limits and Measurement Procedures for Electrical Machines Deterministic and Statistical Methods of Noise Prediction Economical Aspects Accuracy of Noise Prediction MAGNETIC FIELDS AND RADIAL FORCES IN POLYPHASE MOTORS FED WITH SINUSOIDAL CURRENTS Construction of Induction Motors Construction of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Brushless Motors A.C. Stator Windings Stator Winding MMF Rotor Magnetic Field Calculation of Air Gap Magnetic Field Radial Forces Other Sources of Electromagnetic Vibration and Noise INVERTER-FED MOTORS Generation of Higher Time Harmonics Analysis of Radial Forces for Nonsinusoidal Currents Higher Time Harmonic Torques in Induction Machines Higher Time Harmonic Torques in Permanent Magnet (PM) Brushless Machines Influence of the Switching Frequency of an Inverter Noise Reduction of Inverter-Fed Motors TORQUE PULSATIONS Analytical Methods of Instantaneous Torque Calculation Numerical Methods of Instantaneous Torque Calculation Electromagnetic Torque Components Sources of Torque Pulsations Higher Harmonic Torques of Induction Motors Cogging Torque in Permanent Magnet (PM) Brushless Motors Torque Ripple Due to Distortion of EMF and Current Waveforms in Permanent Magnet (PM) Brushless Motors Tangential Forces vs. Radial Forces Minimization of Torque Ripple in PM Brushless Motors STATOR SYSTEM VIBRATION ANALYSIS Forced Vibration Simplified Calculation of Natural Frequencies of the Stator System Improved Analytical Method of Calculation of Natural Frequencies Numerical Verification ACOUSTIC CALCULATIONS Sound Radiation Efficiency Plane Radiator Infinitely Long Cylindrical Radiator Finite Length Cylindrical Radiator Calculations of Sound Power Level NOISE AND VIBRATION OF MECHANICAL AND AERODYNAMIC ORIGIN Mechanical Noise Due to Shaft and Rotor Irregularities Bearing Noise Noise Due to Toothed Gear Trains Aerodynamic Noise Mechanical Noise Generated by the Load ACOUSTIC AND VIBRATION INSTRUMENTATION Measuring System and Transducers Measurement of Sound Pressure Acoustic Measurement Procedure Vibration Measurements Frequency Analyzers Sound Power and Sound Pressure Indirect Methods of Sound Power Measurement Direct Method of Sound Power Measurement: Sound Intensity Technique Standard for Testing Acoustic Performance of Rotating Electrical Machines NUMERICAL ANALYSIS Introduction FEM Model for Radial Magnetic Pressure FEM for Structural Modeling BEM for Acoustic Radiation Discussion STATISTICAL ENERGY ANALYSIS Introduction Power Flow Between Linearly Coupled Oscillators Coupled Multimodal Systems Experimental SEA Application to Electrical Motors NOISE CONTROL Mounting Standard Methods of Noise Reduction Active Noise and Vibration Control APPENDIX A: BASICS OF ACOUSTICS Sound Field Variables and Wave Equations Sound Radiation from a Point Source Decibel Levels and Their Calculations Spectrum Analysis APPENDIX B: PERMEANCE OF NONUNIFORM AIR GAP Permeance Calculation Eccentricity Effect APPENDIX C: MAGNETIC SATURATION APPENDIX D: BASICS OF VIBRATION A Mass-Spring-Damper Oscillator Lumped Parameter Systems Continuous Systems SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX

375 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years