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Sound power

About: Sound power is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 6337 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 73363 citation(s). The topic is also known as: acoustic power. more

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Journal ArticleDOI
Michael James Lighthill1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The theory of sound generated aerodynamically is extended by taking into account the statistical properties of turbulent airflows, from which the sound radiated (without the help of solid boundaries) is called aerodynamic noise. The theory is developed with special reference to the noise of jets, for which a detailed comparison with experiment is made (§7 for subsonic jets, §8 for supersonic ones). The quadrupole distribution of part I (Lighthill 1952) is shown to behave (see §3) as if it were concentrated into independent point quadrupoles, one in each ‘average eddy volume’. The sound field of each of these is distorted, in favour of downstream emission, by the general downstream motion of the eddy, in accordance with the quadrupole convection theory of part I. This explains, for jet noise, the marked preference for downstream emission, and its increase with jet velocity. For jet velocities considerably greater than the atmospheric speed of sound, the ‘Mach number of convection’ M c may exceed I in parts of the jet, and then the directional maximum for emission from these parts of the jet is at an angle of sec -1 ( M c ) to the axis (§8). Although turbulence without any mean flow has an acoustic power output, which was calculated to a rough approximation from the expressions of part I by Proudman (1952) (see also § 4 below), nevertheless, turbulence of given intensity can generate more sound in the presence of a large mean shear (§ 5). This sound has a directional maximum at 45° (or slightly less, due to the quadrupole convection effect) to the shear layer. These results follow from the fact that the most important term in the rate of change of momentum flux is the product of the pressure and the rate of strain (see figure 2). The higher frequency sound from the heavily sheared mixing region close to the orifice of a jet is found to be of this character. But the lower frequency sound from the fully turbulent core of the jet, farther downstream, can be estimated satisfactorily (§7) from Proudman’s results, which are here reinterpreted (§5) in terms of sound generated from combined fluctuations of pressure and rate of shear in the turbulence. The acoustic efficiency of the jet is of the order of magnitude 10 -4 M 5 , where M is the orifice Mach number. However, the good agreement, as regards total acoustic power output, with the dimensional considerations of part I, is partly fortuitous. The quadrupole convection effect should produce an increase in the dependence of acoustic power on the jet velocity above the predicted U 8 law. The experiments show that (largely cancelling this) some other dependence on velocity is present, tending to reduce the intensity, at the stations where the convection effect would be absent, below the U 8 law. At these stations (at 90° to the jet) proportionality to about U 6.5 is more common. A suggested explanation of this, compatible with the existing evidence, is that at higher Mach numbers there may be less turbulence (especially for larger values of nd / U , where n is frequency and d diameter), because in the mixing region, where the turbulence builds up, it is losing energy by sound radiation. This would explain also the slow rate of spread of supersonic mixing regions, and, indeed, is not incompatible with existing rough explanations of that phenomenon. A consideration (§6) of whether the terms other than momentum flux in the quadrupole strength density might become important in heated jets indicates that they should hardly ever be dominant. Accordingly, the physical explanation (part I) of aerodynamic sound generation still stands. It is re-emphasized, however, that whenever there is a fluctuating force between the fluid and a solid boundary, a dipole radiation will result which may be more efficient than the quadrupole radiation, at least at low Mach numbers. more

1,382 citations

07 Mar 1996-
Abstract: Introduction to Mechanical Vibrations: Terminology. Single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) Systems. Free Motion of SDOF Systems. Damped Motion of SDOF Systems. Forced Response of SDOF Systems. Transient Response of SDOF Systems. Multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) Systems. Free Motion of MDOF Systems. Forced Response of MDOF Systems. Damped Motion of MDOF Systems. Finite Element Analysis of Vibrating Mechanical Systems. Introduction to Waves in Structures: Longitudinal Waves. Flexural Waves. Flexural Response of an Infinite Beam to an Oscillating Point Force. Flexural Wave Power Flow. Flexural Response of an Infinite Thin Beam to an Oscillating Line Moment. Free Flexural Motion of Finite Thin Beams. Response of a Finite Thin Beam to an Arbitrary Oscillating Force Distribution. Vibration of Thin Plates. Free Vibration of Thin Plates. Response of a Thin Rectangular Simply Supported Plate to an Arbitrary Oscillating Force Distribution. Vibration of Infinite Thin Cylinders. Free Vibration of Finite Thin Cylinders. Harmonic Forced Vibration of Infinite Thin Cylinders. Feedback Control: Single-channel Feedback Control. Stability of a Single-Channel System. Modification of the Response of an SDOF System. The Effect of Delays in the Feedback Loop. The State Variable Approach. Example of a Two-degree-of-freedom System. Output Feedback and State Feedback. State Estimation and Observers. Optimal Control. Modal Control. Feedforward Control: Single Channel Feedforward Control. The Effect of Measurement Noise. Adaptive Digital Controllers. Multichannel Feedforward Control. Adaptive Frequency Domain Controllers. Adaptive Time Domain Controllers. Equivalent Feedback Controller Interpretation. Distributed Transducers for Active Control of Vibration. Active Control of Vibration in Structures: Feedforward Control of Finite Structures. Feedback Control of Finite Structures. Feedforward Control of Wave Transmission. Actuator Arrays for Control of Flexural Waves. Sensor Arrays for Control of Flexural Waves. Feedforward Control of Flexural Waves. Feedback Control of Flexural Waves. Active Isolation of Vibrations: Isolation of Periodic Vibrations of an SDOF System. Vibration Isolation From a Flexible Receiver the Effects of Secondary Force Location. Active Isolation of Periodic Vibrations Using Multiple Secondary Force Inputs. Finite Element Analysis of an Active System for the Isolation of Periodic Vibrations. Practical Examples of Multi-Channel Feedforward Control for the Isolation of Periodic Vibrations. Isolation of Unpredictable Vibrations from a Receiving Structure. Isolation of Vibrating Systems from Random External Excitation the Possibilities for Feedforward Control. Isolation of Vibrating Systems from Random External Excitation Analysis of Feedback Control Strategies. Isolation of Vibrating Systems from Random External Excitation Formulation in Terms of Modern Control Theory. Active Isolation of Vehicle Vibrations from Road and Track Irregularities. Active Structural Acoustic Control, I. Plate Systems: Sound Radiation by Planar Vibrating Surfaces the Rayleigh Integral. The Calculation of Radiated Sound Fields by Using Wavenumber Fourier Transforms. Sound Power Radiation From Structures in Terms of Their Multi-Modal Response. General Analysis of Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) for Plate Systems. Active Control of Sound Transmission Through a Rectangular Plate Using Point Force Actuators. Active Control of Structurally Radiated Sound Using Multiple Piezoelectric Actuator Interpretation of Behaviour in Terms of the Spatial Wavenumber Spectrum. The Use of Piezoelectric Distributed Structural Error Sensors in ASAC. An Example of the Implementation of Feedforward ASAC. Feeback Control of Sound Radiation From a Vibrating Baffled Piston. Feedback Control of Sound Radiation From Distributed Elastic Structures. Active Structural Acoustic Control, II. Cylinder Systems: Coupled Cylinder Acoustic Fields. Response of an Infinite Cylinder to a Harmonic Forcing Function. Active Control of Cylinder Interior Acoustic Fields Using Point Forces. Active Control of Vibration and Acoustic Transmission in Fluid-Filled Piping Systems. Active Control of Sound Radiation From Vibrating Cylinders. Active Control of Sound in Finite Cylinder Systems. Control of Interior Noise in a Full Scale Jet Aircraft Fuselage. Appendix. References. Index. more

1,055 citations

Proceedings Article
W. P. Arnott1, R. Raspet1, H.E. Bass1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 1991-
Abstract: Thermoacoustic engines (TAEs) can be used to pump heat using a sound wave or pump a sound wave using a temperature gradient. The basic arrangement is a gas-filled acoustic resonator with appropriately positioned thermoacoustic elements. Two types of thermoacoustic elements are used in these engines: (1) heat exchangers used to communicate heat between the gas and external heat reservoirs; and (2) the TAE, also known as a stack. The TAEs are sections of porous media that support the temperature gradient, transport heat on the acoustic wave between the exchangers, and produce or absorb acoustic power. Previous results have been developed for TAEs with circular or parallel slit pore geometries. The theory is extended for gas-filled TAEs to include pores of arbitrary cross-sectional geometry. An approximate analysis of energy flow and acoustical measurements of a thermoacoustic prime mover are given. > more

774 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A theoretical expression for the far-field acoustic power spectral density produced by an airfoil in a subsonic turbulent stream is given in terms of quantities characteristics of the turbulence. For an observer directly above the airfoil the relevant quantities are the spanwise correlation length of the turbulence as a function of frequency and the PSD of the vertical velocity fluctuations, both quantities being measured in an airfoil fixed co-ordinate system. In the derivation it is assumed that the spanwise correlation length is much smaller than the airfoil span. A more solid theoretical foundation is developed for a lift expression given by Liepmann for an airfoil in turbulence. Also, the analysis shows why it is not necessary, within certain limitations, to integrate over all gust wavenumbers in order to calculate the sound at a given observer location. Rather, for small turbulence length scales the observer hears only the sound produced by a particular wavenumber component of the turbulence, and thus the analysis can be simplified considerably. A comparison of the theory with experimental acoustic and lift measurements available in the literature shows good agreement. more

714 citations

David Alan Bies, Colin H. Hansen1Institutions (1)
29 Sep 2003-
Abstract: Fundamentals and Basic Terminology Introduction Noise-Control Strategies Acoustic Field Variables Wave Equations Mean Square Quantities Energy Density Sound Density Sound Power Units Spectra Combining Sound Pressures Impedance Flow Resistance The Human Ear Brief Description of the Ear Mechanical Properties of the Central Partition Noise Induced Hearing Loss Subjective Response to Sound Pressure Level Instrumentation for Noise Measurement and Analysis Microphones Weighting Networks Sound Level Meters Classes of Sound Level Meter Sound Level Meter Calibration Noise Measurements Using Sound Level Meters Time-Varying Sound Noise Level Measurement Data Loggers Personal Sound Exposure Meter Recording of Noise Spectrum Analysers Intensity Meter Energy Density Sensors Sound Source Localization Criteria Introduction Hearing Loss Hearing Damage Risk Hearing Damage Risk Criteria Implementing a Hearing Conservation Program Speech Interference Criteria Psychological Effects of Noise Ambient Noise Level Specification Environmental Noise Level Criteria Environmental Noise Level Surveys Sound Sources and Outdoor Sound Propagation Introduction Simple Source Dipole Source Quadruple Source (Far-Field Approximation) Line Source Piston in an Infinite Baffle Incoherent Plane Radiator Directivity Reflection Effects Reflection and Transmission at a Plane/Two Media Interface Sound Propagation Outdoors, General Concepts Sound Power, its Use and Measurement Introduction Radiation Impedance Relation between Sound Power and Sound Pressure Radiation Field of a Sound Source Determination of Sound Power Using Intensity Measurements Determination of Sound Power Using Surface Vibration Measurements Some Uses of Sound Power Information Sound in Enclosed Spaces Introduction Low Frequencies Bound between Low-Frequency and High-Frequency Behavior High Frequencies, Statistical Analysis Transit Response Porous Sound Absorbers Panel Sound Absorbers Flat and Long Rooms Applications of Sound Absorption Auditorium Design Partitions, Enclosures and Barriers Introduction Sound Transmission through Partitions Noise Reduction vs Transmission Loss Enclosures Barriers Pipe Lagging Muffling Devices Introduction Measures of Performance Diffusers as Muffling Devices Classification of Muffling Devices Acoustic Impedance Lumped Element Devices Reactive Devices Lined Ducts Duct Bends or Elbows Unlined Ducts Effect of Duct End Reflections Duct Break-Out Noise Line Plenum Attenuator Water Injection Directivity of Exhaust Duct Vibration Control Introduction Vibration Isolation Types of Isolators Vibration Absorbers Vibration Neutralizers Vibration Measurement Damping of Vibrating Surfaces Measurement of Damping Sound Power and Sound Pressure Level Estimation Procedures Introduction Fan Noise Air Compressors Compressors for Chillers and Refrigeration Units Cooling Towers Pumps Jets Control Valves Pipe Flow Boilers Turbines Diesel and Gas-Driven Engines Furnace Noise Electric Motors Generators Transformers Gears Transportation Noise Practical Numerical Acoustics Introduction Low-Frequency Region High-Frequency Region: Statistical Energy ANalysis more

529 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

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