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Southeast asian

About: Southeast asian is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 17093 publications have been published within this topic receiving 322751 citations.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
18 Aug 1999-JAMA
TL;DR: The global burden of tuberculosis remains enormous, mainly because of poor control in Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and eastern Europe, and because of high rates of M tuberculosis and HIV coinfection in some African countries.
Abstract: Objective To estimate the risk and prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and tuberculosis (TB) incidence, prevalence, and mortality, including disease attributable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), for 212 countries in 1997. Participants A panel of 86 TB experts and epidemiologists from more than 40 countries was chosen by the World Health Organization (WHO), with final agreement being reached between country experts and WHO staff. Evidence Incidence of TB and mortality in each country was determined by (1) case notification to the WHO, (2) annual risk of infection data from tuberculin surveys, and (3) data on prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary disease from prevalence surveys. Estimates derived from relatively poor data were strongly influenced by panel member opinion. Objective estimates were derived from high-quality data collected recently by approved procedures. Consensus Process Agreement was reached by (1) participants reviewing methods and data and making provisional estimates in closed workshops held at WHO's 6 regional offices, (2) principal authors refining estimates using standard methods and all available data, and (3) country experts reviewing and adjusting these estimates and reaching final agreement with WHO staff. Conclusions In 1997, new cases of TB totaled an estimated 7.96 million (range, 6.3 million–11.1 million), including 3.52 million (2.8 million–4.9 million) cases (44%) of infectious pulmonary disease (smear-positive), and there were 16.2 million (12.1 million–22.5 million) existing cases of disease. An estimated 1.87 million (1.4 million–2.8 million) people died of TB and the global case fatality rate was 23% but exceeded 50% in some African countries with high HIV rates. Global prevalence of MTB infection was 32% (1.86 billion people). Eighty percent of all incident TB cases were found in 22 countries, with more than half the cases occurring in 5 Southeast Asian countries. Nine of 10 countries with the highest incidence rates per capita were in Africa. Prevalence of MTB/HIV coinfection worldwide was 0.18% and 640,000 incident TB cases (8%) had HIV infection. The global burden of tuberculosis remains enormous, mainly because of poor control in Southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and eastern Europe, and because of high rates of M tuberculosis and HIV coinfection in some African countries.

3,035 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The financial market turmoil in 2007 and 2008 has led to the most severe financial crisis since the Great Depression and threatens to have large repercussions on the real economy as mentioned in this paper The bursting of the housing bubble forced banks to write down several hundred billion dollars in bad loans caused by mortgage delinquencies at the same time the stock market capitalization of the major banks declined by more than twice as much.
Abstract: The financial market turmoil in 2007 and 2008 has led to the most severe financial crisis since the Great Depression and threatens to have large repercussions on the real economy The bursting of the housing bubble forced banks to write down several hundred billion dollars in bad loans caused by mortgage delinquencies At the same time, the stock market capitalization of the major banks declined by more than twice as much While the overall mortgage losses are large on an absolute scale, they are still relatively modest compared to the $8 trillion of US stock market wealth lost between October 2007, when the stock market reached an all-time high, and October 2008 This paper attempts to explain the economic mechanisms that caused losses in the mortgage market to amplify into such large dislocations and turmoil in the financial markets, and describes common economic threads that explain the plethora of market declines, liquidity dry-ups, defaults, and bailouts that occurred after the crisis broke in summer 2007 To understand these threads, it is useful to recall some key factors leading up to the housing bubble The US economy was experiencing a low interest rate environment, both because of large capital inflows from abroad, especially from Asian countries, and because the Federal Reserve had adopted a lax interest rate policy Asian countries bought US securities both to peg the exchange rates at an export-friendly level and to hedge against a depreciation of their own currencies against the dollar, a lesson learned from the Southeast Asian crisis of the late 1990s The Federal Reserve Bank feared a deflationary period after the bursting of the Internet bubble and thus did not counteract the buildup of the housing bubble At the same time, the banking system underwent an important transformation The

2,434 citations

Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this article, Aihwa Ong offers an alternative view of neoliberalism as an extraordinarily malleable technology of governing that is taken up in different ways by different regimes, be they authoritarian, democratic, or communist.
Abstract: Neoliberalism is commonly viewed as an economic doctrine that seeks to limit the scope of government. Some consider it a form of predatory capitalism with adverse effects on the Global South. In this groundbreaking work, Aihwa Ong offers an alternative view of neoliberalism as an extraordinarily malleable technology of governing that is taken up in different ways by different regimes, be they authoritarian, democratic, or communist. Ong shows how East and Southeast Asian states are making exceptions to their usual practices of governing in order to position themselves to compete in the global economy. As she demonstrates, a variety of neoliberal strategies of governing are re-engineering political spaces and populations. Ong’s ethnographic case studies illuminate experiments and developments such as China’s creation of special market zones within its socialist economy; pro-capitalist Islam and women’s rights in Malaysia; Singapore’s repositioning as a hub of scientific expertise; and flexible labor and knowledge regimes that span the Pacific. Ong traces how these and other neoliberal exceptions to business as usual are reconfiguring relationships between governing and the governed, power and knowledge, and sovereignty and territoriality. She argues that an interactive mode of citizenship is emerging, one that organizes people—and distributes rights and benefits to them—according to their marketable skills rather than according to their membership within nation-states. Those whose knowledge and skills are not assigned significant market value—such as migrant women working as domestic maids in many Asian cities—are denied citizenship. Nevertheless, Ong suggests that as the seam between sovereignty and citizenship is pried apart, a new space is emerging for NGOs to advocate for the human rights of those excluded by neoliberal measures of human worthiness.

2,355 citations

Book
01 Mar 2010
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an "anarchist history" of the people of Zomia, a mountainous region the size of Europe that consists of portions of seven Asian countries, who have fled the projects of the organized state societies that surround them.
Abstract: From the acclaimed author and scholar James C. Scott, the compelling tale of Asian peoples who until recently have stemmed the vast tide of state-making to live at arm's length from any organized state society For two thousand years the disparate groups that now reside in Zomia (a mountainous region the size of Europe that consists of portions of seven Asian countries) have fled the projects of the organized state societies that surround them-slavery, conscription, taxes, corvee labor, epidemics, and warfare. This book, essentially an "anarchist history," is the first-ever examination of the huge literature on state-making whose author evaluates why people would deliberately and reactively remain stateless. Among the strategies employed by the people of Zomia to remain stateless are physical dispersion in rugged terrain; agricultural practices that enhance mobility; pliable ethnic identities; devotion to prophetic, millenarian leaders; and maintenance of a largely oral culture that allows them to reinvent their histories and genealogies as they move between and around states. In accessible language, James Scott, recognized worldwide as an eminent authority in Southeast Asian, peasant, and agrarian studies, tells the story of the peoples of Zomia and their unlikely odyssey in search of self-determination. He redefines our views on Asian politics, history, demographics, and even our fundamental ideas about what constitutes civilization, and challenges us with a radically different approach to history that presents events from the perspective of stateless peoples and redefines state-making as a form of "internal colonialism." This new perspective requires a radical reevaluation of the civilizational narratives of the lowland states. Scott's work on Zomia represents a new way to think of area studies that will be applicable to other runaway, fugitive, and marooned communities, be they Gypsies, Cossacks, tribes fleeing slave raiders, Marsh Arabs, or San-Bushmen.

1,959 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
29 Jan 1988-Science
TL;DR: This work has identified a severe syndrome, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, in Southeast Asian children, which recently has also been identified in children infected with the virus in Puerto Rico.
Abstract: Dengue viruses occur as four antigenically related but distinct serotypes transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. These viruses generally cause a benign syndrome, dengue fever, in the American and African tropics, and a severe syndrome, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), in Southeast Asian children. This severe syndrome, which recently has also been identified in children infected with the virus in Puerto Rico, is characterized by increased vascular permeability and abnormal hemostasis. It occurs in infants less than 1 year of age born to dengue-immune mothers and in children 1 year and older who are immune to one serotype of dengue virus and are experiencing infection with a second serotype. Dengue viruses replicate in cells of mononuclear phagocyte lineage, and subneutralizing concentrations of dengue antibody enhance dengue virus infection in these cells. This antibody-dependent enhancement of infection regulates dengue disease in human beings, although disease severity may also be controlled genetically, possibly by permitting and restricting the growth of virus in monocytes. Monoclonal antibodies show heterogeneous distribution of antigenic epitopes on dengue viruses. These epitopes serve to regulate disease: when antibodies to shared antigens partially neutralize heterotypic virus, infection and disease are dampened; enhancing antibodies alone result in heightened disease response. Further knowledge of the structure of dengue genomes should permit rapid advances in understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms of dengue.

1,607 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202222
2021920
20201,023
2019880
2018798
2017910