About: Sowing is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 33888 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 273438 citation(s). The topic is also known as: seeding.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: How theoretical models deal with seed limitation and how seed sowing experiments can be used to unravel the extent of seed limitation in natural systems are considered.
Abstract: We define seed limitation to be an increase in population size following seed addition. Here, we briefly consider how theoretical models deal with seed limitation and how seed sowing experiments can be used to unravel the extent of seed limitation in natural systems. We review two types of seed addition experiments: seed augmentation studies where seeds are added to existing populations; and seed introductions where seeds are sown in unoccupied sites. Overall, approximately 50% of seed augmentation experiments show evidence of seed limitation. These studies show that seed limitation tends to occur more commonly in early successional habitats and in early successional species. Most of the studies have concentrated on simply categorising populations as seed- or microsite-limited, but we believe that seed sowing experiments could be used to reveal much more about community structure, and we discuss possible future directions. In 53% of introduction studies (where seeds were sown at sites from which the species was known to be absent) the introduced species was recorded in at least one of the experimental sites following sowing. However, of the subset of studies where both seedlings and adult plants were recorded, 64% of sites contained seedlings while only 23% contained adults. This implies that, for many species, conditions for establishment are more stringent than conditions for germination. The successful establishment of plants in unoccupied patches indicates the potential for immigration to enhance local diversity (the spatial mass effect). Few studies continued monitoring for long enough to determine whether or not self-sustaining populations were successfully established, and no study attempted to link introduction sites to a putative natural source of propagules, or considered the dynamics of the metapopulation as a whole.
01 Jan 1974
01 Jan 2005-Advances in Agronomy
TL;DR: The incorporation of advanced molecular biology techniques in seed research is vital to the understanding and integration of multiple metabolic processes that can lead to enhanced seed germination, and consequently to improved stand establishment and crop yield under saline and non‐saline conditions.
Abstract: Rapid seed germination and stand establishment are critical factors to crop production under salt‐stress conditions. In many crop species, seed germination and early seedling growth are the most sensitive stages to salinity stress. Salinity may delay the onset, reduce the rate, and increase the dispersion of germination events, leading to reductions in plant growth and final crop yield. The adverse effects of salt‐stress can be alleviated by various measures, including seed priming (a.k.a. pre‐sowing seed treatment). The general purpose of seed priming is to partially hydrate the seed to a point where germination processes are begun but not completed. Most priming treatments involve imbibing seed with restricted amounts of water to allow sufficient hydration and advancement of metabolic processes but preventing germination or loss of desiccation tolerance. Treated seeds are usually redried before use, but they would exhibit rapid germination when re‐imbibed under normal or stress conditions. Various seed priming techniques have been developed, including hydropriming (soaking in water), halopriming (soaking in inorganic salt solutions), osmopriming (soaking in solutions of different organic osmotica), thermopriming (treatment of seed with low or high temperatures), solid matrix priming (treatment of seed with solid matrices), and biopriming (hydration using biological compounds). Each treatment has advantages and disadvantages and may have varying effects depending upon plant species, stage of plant development, concentration/dose of priming agent, and incubation period. In this article, we review, evaluate, and compare effects of various methods of seed priming in improving germination of different plant species under saline and non‐saline conditions. We also discuss the known metabolic and ultra‐structural changes that occur during seed priming and subsequent germination. To maximize the utility of various seed priming techniques, factors affecting their efficiency must be examined and potential benefits and drawbacks determined. For example, quality of the seed before treatment, concentration/dose of priming agent, time period for priming, and storage quality of the seed following priming treatment must be carefully determined. Furthermore, such assessments must be based on large‐scale experiments if seed priming is to be used for large‐scale field planting. A better understanding of the metabolic events that take place in the seed during priming and subsequent germination will improve the effective application of this technology. The incorporation of advanced molecular biology techniques in seed research is vital to the understanding and integration of multiple metabolic processes that can lead to enhanced seed germination, and consequently to improved stand establishment and crop yield under saline and non‐saline conditions.
01 Jan 1984-Crop & Pasture Science
TL;DR: The relations between wheat yield and water use were determined from field measurements in South Australia by fitting the de Wit formula Y = m W/Ep, but the m factor varied with the proportion of water use that was lost by direct evaporation.
Abstract: The relations between wheat yield and water use were determined from field measurements in South Australia. Highest production of dry matter was 37 kg ha-1 per mm of water use and of grain was 12.7 kg ha-1 per mm. More than 70% of the total water use occurred by anthesis. Time of sowing and soil water content at sowing had a big influence on yield. The loss of water by direct evaporation was estimated to be 110 mm, equal to about one-third of the water use. The maximum efficiency of water transpired was 55 kg ha-1 mm-1 for dry matter and 20 kg ha-1 mm-1 for grain. The efficiencies of most of the crops were below this level. Yield (Y), water use (W) and evaporation (Ep) could be fitted to the de Wit formula Y = m W/Ep, but the m factor varied with the proportion of water use that was lost by direct evaporation.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present global planting date patterns for maize, spring wheat and winter wheat (their full, publicly available data set contains planting and harvesting dates for 19 major crops), and explore spatial relationships between planting date and climate.
Abstract: Aim To assemble a data set of global crop planting and harvesting dates for 19 major crops, explore spatial relationships between planting date and climate for two of them, and compare our analysis with a review of the literature on factors that drive decisions on planting dates. Location Global. Methods We digitized and georeferenced existing data on crop planting and harvesting dates from six sources. We then examined relationships between planting dates and temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration using 30-year average climatologies from the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia (CRU CL 2.0). Results We present global planting date patterns for maize, spring wheat and winter wheat (our full, publicly available data set contains planting and harvesting dates for 19 major crops). Maize planting in the northern mid-latitudes generally occurs in April and May. Daily average air temperatures are usually c. 12–17 °C at the time of maize planting in these regions, although soil moisture often determines planting date more directly than does temperature. Maize planting dates vary more widely in tropical regions. Spring wheat is usually planted at cooler temperatures than maize, between c. 8 and 14 °C in temperate regions. Winter wheat is generally planted in September and October in the northern mid-latitudes. Main conclusions In temperate regions, spatial patterns of maize and spring wheat planting dates can be predicted reasonably well by assuming a fixed temperature at planting. However, planting dates in lower latitudes and planting dates of winter wheat are more difficult to predict from climate alone. In part this is because planting dates may be chosen to ensure a favourable climate during a critical growth stage, such as flowering, rather than to ensure an optimal climate early in the crop's growth. The lack of predictability is also due to the pervasive influence of technological and socio-economic factors on planting dates.
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