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Space charge

About: Space charge is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 18000 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 272648 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1957-
Abstract: For certain p-n junctions, it has been observed that the measured current-voltage characteristics deviate from the ideal case of the diffusion model. It is the purpose of this paper to show that the current due to generation and recombination of carriers from generation-recombination centers in the space charge region of a p-n junction accounts for the observed characteristics. This phenomenon dominates in semiconductors with large energy gap, low lifetimes, and low resistivity. This model not only accounts for the nonsaturable reverse current, but also predicts an apparent exp (qV/nkT) dependence of the forward current in a p-n junction. The relative importance of the diffusion current outside the space charge layer and the recombination current inside the space charge layer also explains the increase of the emitter efficiency of silicon transistors with emitter current. A correlation of the theory with experiment indicates that the energy level of the centers is a few kT from the intrinsic Fermi level.

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1,852 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Elzbieta Frackowiak1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: It appears that nanotubes are a perfect conducting additive and/or support for materials with pseudocapacitance properties, e.g. MnO(2), conducting polymers.

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Abstract: The most commonly used electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors are activated carbons, because they are commercially available and cheap, and they can be produced with large specific surface area. However, only the electrochemically available surface area is useful for charging the electrical double layer (EDL). The EDL formation is especially efficient in carbon pores of size below 1 nm because of the lack of space charge and a good attraction of ions along the pore walls. The pore size should ideally match the size of the ions. However, for good dynamic charge propagation, some small mesopores are useful. An asymmetric configuration, where the positive and negative electrodes are constructed from different materials, e.g., activated carbon, transition metal oxide or conducting polymer, is of great interest because of an important extension of the operating voltage. In such a case, the energy as well as power is greatly increased. It appears that nanotubes are a perfect conducting additive and/or support for materials with pseudocapacitance properties, e.g. MnO2, conducting polymers. Substitutional heteroatoms in the carbon network (nitrogen, oxygen) are a promising way to enhance the capacitance. Carbons obtained by one-step pyrolysis of organic precursors rich in heteroatoms (nitrogen and/or oxygen) are very interesting, because they are denser than activated carbons. The application of a novel type of electrolyte with a broad voltage window (ionic liquids) is considered, but the stability of this new generation of electrolyte during long term cycling of capacitors is not yet confirmed.

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1,595 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
John Bardeen1Institutions (1)
15 May 1947-Physical Review
Abstract: Localized states (Tamm levels), having energies distributed in the “forbidden” range between the filled band and the conduction band, may exist at the surface of a semi-conductor. A condition of no net charge on the surface atoms may correspond to a partial filling of these states. If the density of surface levels is sufficiently high, there will be an appreciable double layer at the free surface of a semi-conductor formed from a net charge from electrons in surface states and a space charge of opposite sign, similar to that at a rectifying junction, extending into the semi-conductor. This double layer tends to make the work function independent of the height of the level in the interior (which in turn depends on impurity content). If contact is made with a metal, the difference in work function between metal semi-conductor is compensated by surface states charge, rather than by a space charge as is independent of the metal. Rectification characteristics are then independent of the metal. These ideas are used to explain results of Meyerhof and others on the relation between contact potential differences and rectification.

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1,591 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Albert Rose1Institutions (1)
15 Mar 1955-Physical Review
Abstract: Currents, far in excess of ohmic currents, can be drawn through thin, relatively perfect insulating crystals. These currents are the direct analog of space-charge-limited currents in a vacuum diode. In actual crystals, the space-charge-limited currents are less than their theoretical value for an ideal crystal by the ratio of free to trapped carriers. Space-charge-limited currents become, therefore, a simple tool for measuring the imperfections in crystals even in the range of one part in ${10}^{15}$.The presence of traps not only reduces the magnitude of space-charge-limited currents, but also is likely to distort the shape of the current-voltage curve from an ideal square law to a much higher power dependence on voltage. The particular shape can be used to determine the energy distribution of traps.The presence of traps tends to uniformize the charge distribution between electrodes, to introduce a temperature dependence of the current, and to give rise to certain transient effects from which capture cross sections of traps may be computed.Space-charge-limited currents offer another mechanism for electrical breakdown in insulators.

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1,437 citations


01 Sep 1994-
Abstract: Review of Charged Particle Dynamics. Beam Optics and Focusing Systems Without Space Charge. Linear Beam Optics with Space Charge. Self-Consistent Theory of Beams. Emittance Variation. Beam Physics Research from 1993 to 2007. Appendices. List of Frequently Used Symbols. Bibliography. Index.

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1,300 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20227
2021349
2020442
2019438
2018498
2017499

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

George Chen

218 papers, 3.5K citations

Yasuhiro Tanaka

148 papers, 1.9K citations

Gilbert Teyssedre

136 papers, 2.5K citations

Masayuki Nagao

92 papers, 572 citations

Christophe Laurent

81 papers, 1.2K citations