Topic

# Spatial network

About: Spatial network is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1293 publications have been published within this topic receiving 49001 citations. The topic is also known as: geometric grape.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a simple model based on the power-law degree distribution of real networks was proposed, which was able to reproduce the power law degree distribution in real networks and to capture the evolution of networks, not just their static topology.

Abstract: The emergence of order in natural systems is a constant source of inspiration for both physical and biological sciences. While the spatial order characterizing for example the crystals has been the basis of many advances in contemporary physics, most complex systems in nature do not offer such high degree of order. Many of these systems form complex networks whose nodes are the elements of the system and edges represent the interactions between them.
Traditionally complex networks have been described by the random graph theory founded in 1959 by Paul Erdohs and Alfred Renyi. One of the defining features of random graphs is that they are statistically homogeneous, and their degree distribution (characterizing the spread in the number of edges starting from a node) is a Poisson distribution. In contrast, recent empirical studies, including the work of our group, indicate that the topology of real networks is much richer than that of random graphs. In particular, the degree distribution of real networks is a power-law, indicating a heterogeneous topology in which the majority of the nodes have a small degree, but there is a significant fraction of highly connected nodes that play an important role in the connectivity of the network.
The scale-free topology of real networks has very important consequences on their functioning. For example, we have discovered that scale-free networks are extremely resilient to the random disruption of their nodes. On the other hand, the selective removal of the nodes with highest degree induces a rapid breakdown of the network to isolated subparts that cannot communicate with each other.
The non-trivial scaling of the degree distribution of real networks is also an indication of their assembly and evolution. Indeed, our modeling studies have shown us that there are general principles governing the evolution of networks. Most networks start from a small seed and grow by the addition of new nodes which attach to the nodes already in the system. This process obeys preferential attachment: the new nodes are more likely to connect to nodes with already high degree. We have proposed a simple model based on these two principles wich was able to reproduce the power-law degree distribution of real networks. Perhaps even more importantly, this model paved the way to a new paradigm of network modeling, trying to capture the evolution of networks, not just their static topology.

17,463 citations

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TL;DR: This work represents communication/transportation systems as networks and studies their ability to resist failures simulated as the breakdown of a group of nodes of the network chosen at random (chosen accordingly to degree or load).

Abstract: Communication/transportation systems are often subjected to failures and attacks. Here we represent such systems as networks and we study their ability to resist failures (attacks) simulated as the breakdown of a group of nodes of the network chosen at random (chosen accordingly to degree or load). We consider and compare the results for two different network topologies: the Erdos–Renyi random graph and the Barabasi–Albert scale-free network. We also discuss briefly a dynamical model recently proposed to take into account the dynamical redistribution of loads after the initial damage of a single node of the network.

2,290 citations

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University of Lugano

^{1}, New York University^{2}, Facebook^{3}, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne^{4}TL;DR: In many applications, such geometric data are large and complex (in the case of social networks, on the scale of billions) and are natural targets for machine-learning techniques as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: Many scientific fields study data with an underlying structure that is non-Euclidean. Some examples include social networks in computational social sciences, sensor networks in communications, functional networks in brain imaging, regulatory networks in genetics, and meshed surfaces in computer graphics. In many applications, such geometric data are large and complex (in the case of social networks, on the scale of billions) and are natural targets for machine-learning techniques. In particular, we would like to use deep neural networks, which have recently proven to be powerful tools for a broad range of problems from computer vision, natural-language processing, and audio analysis. However, these tools have been most successful on data with an underlying Euclidean or grid-like structure and in cases where the invariances of these structures are built into networks used to model them.

1,986 citations

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TL;DR: This work introduces a model that leads to a scale-free network, capturing in a minimal fashion the self-organization processes governing the world-wide web.

Abstract: The world-wide web forms a large directed graph, whose vertices are documents and edges are links pointing from one document to another. Here we demonstrate that despite its apparent random character, the topology of this graph has a number of universal scale-free characteristics. We introduce a model that leads to a scale-free network, capturing in a minimal fashion the self-organization processes governing the world-wide web. c 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PACS: 84.35.+i; 64.60.Fr; 87.23.Ge

1,364 citations

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TL;DR: It is found that in some cases, the models are in remarkable agreement with the data, whereas in others the agreement is poorer, perhaps indicating the presence of additional social structure in the network that is not captured by the random graph.

Abstract: We describe some new exactly solvable models of the structure of social networks, based on random graphs with arbitrary degree distributions. We give models both for simple unipartite networks, such as acquaintance networks, and bipartite networks, such as affiliation networks. We compare the predictions of our models to data for a number of real-world social networks and find that in some cases, the models are in remarkable agreement with the data, whereas in others the agreement is poorer, perhaps indicating the presence of additional social structure in the network that is not captured by the random graph.

1,318 citations