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Specialization (functional)

About: Specialization (functional) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7005 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 167699 citation(s). more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/467037
Eugene F. Fama1, Michael C. Jensen2Institutions (2)
Abstract: ABSENT fiat, the form of organization that survives in an activity is the one that delivers the product demanded by customers at the lowest price while covering costs.1 Our goal is to explain the survival of organizations characterized by separation of "ownership" and "control"-a problem that has bothered students of corporations from Adam Smith to Berle and Means and Jensen and Meckling.2 In more precise language, we are concerned with the survival of organizations in which important decision agents do not bear a substantial share of the wealth effects of their decisions. We argue that the separation of decision and risk-bearing functions observed in large corporations is common to other organizations such as large professional partnerships, financial mutuals, and nonprofits. We contend that separation of decision and risk-bearing functions survives in these organizations in part because of the benefits of specialization of more

12,776 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/256406
Fariborz Damanpour1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A meta-analysis of the relationships between organizational innovation and 13 of its potential determinants resulted in statistically significant associations for specialization, functional differe... more

Topics: Resource management (61%), Organizational behavior (56%), Resource allocation (53%) more

6,403 Citations

Open accessBook
Michael J. Piore1, Charles F. SabelInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 1984-
Abstract: Two MacArthur Prize Fellows argue that to get out of its current economic crisis industry should abandon its attachment to standardized mass production for a system of flexible specialization more

Topics: Prosperity (56%), Specialization (functional) (51%)

4,511 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/261856
Abstract: Recent theories of economic growth, including those of Romer, Porter, and Jacobs, have stressed the role of technological spillovers in generating growth. Because such knowledge spillovers are particularly effective in cities, where communication between people is more extensive, data on the growth of industries in different cities allow us to test some of these theories. Using a new data set on the growth of large industries in 170 U.S. cities between 1956 and 1987, we find that local competition and urban variety, but not regional specialization, encourage employment growth in industries. The evidence suggests that important knowledge spillovers might occur between rather than within industries, consistent with the theories of Jacobs. more

3,531 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/343878
Abstract: Most empirical and theoretical studies of resource use and population dynamics treat conspecific individuals as ecologically equivalent. This simplification is only justified if interindividual niche variation is rare, weak, or has a trivial effect on ecological processes. This article reviews the incidence, degree, causes, and implications of individual-level niche variation to challenge these simplifications. Evidence for individual specialization is available for 93 species dis- tributed across a broad range of taxonomic groups. Although few studies have quantified the degree to which individuals are specialized relative to their population, between-individual variation can some- times comprise the majority of the population's niche width. The degree of individual specialization varies widely among species and among populations, reflecting a diverse array of physiological, be- havioral, and ecological mechanisms that can generate intrapopu- lation variation. Finally, individual specialization has potentially im- portant ecological, evolutionary, and conservation implications. Theory suggests that niche variation facilitates frequency-dependent interactions that can profoundly affect the population's stability, the amount of intraspecific competition, fitness-function shapes, and the population's capacity to diversify and speciate rapidly. Our collection of case studies suggests that individual specialization is a widespread but underappreciated phenomenon that poses many important but unanswered questions. more

Topics: Population (56%), Specialization (functional) (56%)

2,130 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Charles Consel

14 papers, 716 citations

Bart J. Wilson

8 papers, 159 citations

Agoston E. Eiben

6 papers, 81 citations

Geoff Nitschke

6 papers, 103 citations

David R. Bell

6 papers, 183 citations