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Specific surface area

About: Specific surface area is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 37635 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 718797 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/LA9713816
Tomoko Kasuga1, Masayoshi Hiramatsu1, Akihiko Hoson1, Toru Sekino1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
23 May 1998-Langmuir
Abstract: Nanotubes composed of various materials such as carbon, boron nitride, and oxides have been studied recently. In this report, the discovery of a new route for the synthesis of a nanotube made of titanium oxide is presented. Needle-shaped TiO2 crystals (anatase phase) with a diameter of ≈8 nm and a length of ≈100 nm were obtained when sol−gel-derived fine TiO2-based powders were treated chemically (e.g., for 20 h at 110 °C) with a 5−10 M NaOH aqueous solution. It was found by observation using a transmission electron microscope that the needle-shaped products have a tube structure. The TiO2 nanotubes have a large specific surface area of ≈400 m2·g-1. TiO2 nanotubes obtained in the present work are anticipated to have great potential for use in the preparation of catalysts, adsorbants, and deodorants with high activities, because their specific surface area is greatly increased. If metallic-, inorganic-, or organic-based materials can be inserted into the TiO2 nanotubes, novel characteristics such as electr...

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Topics: Nanotube (58%), Titanium oxide (56%), Specific surface area (55%) ...read more

2,247 Citations


Open accessBook
15 Sep 2004-
Abstract: 1 Theoretical- 1 Introduction- 11 Real Surfaces- 12 Factors Affecting Surface area- 13 Surface Area from Particle Size Distributions- 14 References- 2 Gas Adsorption- 21 Introduction- 22 Physical and Chemical Adsorption- 23 Physical Adsorption Forces- 24 Physical Adsorption on a Planar Surface- 25 References- 3 Adsorption Isotherms- 31 Pore Size and Adsorption Potential- 32 Classification of Adsorption Isotherms- 33 References- 4 Adsorption Mechanism- 41 Langmuir and BET Theories (Kinetic Isotherms)- 411 The Langmuir Isotherm- 412 The Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) Theory- 42 The Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) Theory of Multilayer Adsorption- 43 Adsorption in Microporous Materials- 431 Introduction- 432 Aspects of Classical, Thermodynamic Theories for Adsorption in Micropores: Extension of Polanyi's Theory- 433 Aspects of Modern, Microscopic Theories for Adsorption in Micropores: Density Functional Theory and Molecular Simulation- 4331 Density Functional Theory (DFT)- 4332 Computer Simulation Studies: Monte Carlo Simulation and Molecular Dynamics- 4333 NLDFT and Monte Carlo Simulation for Pore Size Analysis- 44 Adsorption in Mesopores- 441 Introduction- 442 Multilayer Adsorption, Pore Condensation and Hysteresis- 443 Pore Condensation: Macroscopic, Thermodynamic Approaches- 4431 Classical Kelvin Equation- 4432 Modified Kelvin Equation- 444 Adsorption Hysteresis- 4441 Classification of Hysteresis Loops- 4442 Origin of Hysteresis- 445 Effects of Temperature and Pore Size: Experiments and Predictions of Modern, Microscopic Theories- 45 References- 5 Surface Area from the Langmuir and BET Theories- 51 Specific Surface Area from the Langmuir Equation- 52 Specific Surface Area from the BET Equation- 521 BET-Plot and Calculation of the Specific Surface Area- 522 The Meaning of Monolayer Coverage- 523 The BET Constant and Site Occupancy- 524 The Single Point BET Method- 525 Comparison of the Single Point and Multipoint Methods- 526 Applicability of the BET Theory- 527 Importance of the Cross-Sectional Area- 528 Nitrogen as the Standard Adsorptive for Surface Area Measurements- 529 Low Surface Area Analysis- 53 References- 6 Other Surface Area Methods- 61 Introduction- 62 Gas Adsorption: Harkins and Jura Relative Method- 63 Immersion Calorimetry: Harkins and Jura Absolute Method- 64 Permeametry- 65 References- 7 Evaluation of the Fractal Dimension by Gas Adsorption- 71 Introduction- 72 Method of Molecular Tiling- 73 The Frenkel-Halsey-Hill Method- 74 The Thermodynamic Method- 75 Comments About Fractal Dimensions Obtained from Gas Adsorption- 76 References- 8 Mesopore Analysis- 81 Introduction- 82 Methods based on the Kelvin equation- 83 Modelless Pore Size Analysis- 84 Total Pore Volume and Average Pore Size- 85 Classical, Macroscopic Thermodynamic Methods versus Modern, Microscopic Models for Pore Size Analysis- 86 Mesopore Analysis and Hysteresis- 861 Use of Adsorption or Desorption Branch for Pore Size Calculation?- 862 Lower Limit of the Hysteresis Loop- Tensile Strength Hypothesis- 87 Adsorptives other than Nitrogen for Mesopore Analysis- 88 References- 9 Micropore Analysis- 91 Introduction- 92 Micropore Analysis by Isotherm Comparison- 921 Concept of V-t curves- 922 The t- Method- 923 The ?s method- 93 The Micropore Analysis (MP) Method)- 94 Total Micropore Volume and Surface Area- 95 The Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) Method- 96 The Horvath-Kawazoe (HK) Approach and Related Methods- 97 Application of NLDFT: Combined Micro/Mesopore Analysis With a Single Method- 98 Adsorptives other than Nitrogen for Super- and Ultramicroporosimetry- 99 References- 10 Mercury Porosimetry: Non-Wetting Liquid Penetration- 101 Introduction- 102 Young-Laplace Equation- 103 Contact Angles and Wetting- 104 Capillarity- 105 The Washburn Equation- 106 Intrusion - Extrusion Curves- 107 Common Features of Porosimetry Curves- 108 Hysteresis, Entrapment and Contact Angle- 109 Contact Angle Changes- 1010 Porosimetric Work- 1012 Theory of Porosimetry Hysteresis- 1013 Pore Potential- 1014 Other Hysteresis Theories (Throat-Pore Ratio Network Model)- 1015 Equivalency of Mercury Porosimetry and Gas Sorption- 1016 References- 11 Pore Size and Surface Characteristics of Porous Solids by Mercury Porosimetry- 111 Application of The Washburn Equation- 112 Pore Size and Pore Size Distribution from Mercury Porosimetry- 1121 Linear Pore Volume Distribution- 1122 Logarithmic Pore Volume Distribution- 1123 Pore Number Distributions- 1124 Pore Length Distribution- 1125 Pore Population (Number Distribution)- 1126 Surface Area and Surface Area Distribution from Intrusion Curves- 1127 Pore Area Distributions- 113 Pore Shape from Hysteresis- 114 Fractal Dimension- 115 Permeability- 116 Tortuosity- 117 Particle Size Distribution- 1171 Mayer & Stowe Approach- 1172 Smith & Stermer Approach- 118 Comparison of Porosimetry and Gas Sorption- 119 Solid Compressibility- 1110 References- 12 Chemisorption: Site Specific Gas Adsorption- 121 Chemical Adsorption- 122 Quantitative Measurements- 123 Stoichiometry- 124 Monolayer Coverage- 1241 Extrapolation- 1242 Irreversible Isotherm and Bracketing- 1243 Langmuir Theory- 1244 Temperature Dependent Models- 1245 Temkin Method- 1246 Freundlich Method- 1247 Isotherm Subtraction - Accessing Spillover- 1248 Surface Titration- 125 Active Metal Area- 126 Dispersion- 127 Crystallite (Nanoparticle) Size- 128 Heats of Adsorption and Activation Energy- 1281 Differential Heats of Adsorption- 1282 Integral Heat of Adsorption- 1283 Activation Energy- 129 References- 2 Experimental- 13 Physical Adsorption Measurements - Preliminaries- 131 Experimental Techniques for Physical Adsorption Measurements- 132 Reference Standards- 133 Representative Samples- 134 Sample Conditioning: Outgassing of the Adsorbent- 135 Elutriation and Its Prevention- 136 References- 14 Vacuum Volumetric Measurements (Manometry)- 141 Basics of Volumetric Adsorption Measurement- 142 Deviations from Ideality- 143 Void Volume Determination- 144 Coolant Level and Temperature Control- 145 Saturation Vapor Pressure, P0 and Temperature of the Sample Cell- 146 Sample Cells- 147 Low Surface Area- 148 Micro- and Mesopore Analysis- 1481 Experimental Requirements- 1482 Micropore Analysis and Void Volume Determination- 1483 Thermal Transpiration Correction- 1484 Adsorptives other than Nitrogen for Micro- and Mesopore Analysis - Experimental Aspects- 149 Automated Instrumentation- 1491 Multistation Sorption Analyzer- 1492 The NOVA Concept- 1410 References- 15 Dynamic Flow Method- 151 Nelson and Eggertsen Continuous Flow Method- 152 Carrier Gas (Helium) and Detector Sensitivity- 153 Design Parameters for Continuous Flow Apparatus- 154 Signals and Signal Calibration- 155 Adsorption and Desorption Isotherms by Continuous Flow- 156 Low Surface Areas Measurement- 157 Data Reduction - Continuous Flow Method- 158 Single Point Method- 159 References- 16 Volumetric Chemisorption: Catalyst Characterization by Static Methods- 161 Applications- 162 Sample Requirements- 163 General Description of Equipment- 164 Measuring System- 1641 Pressure Measurement- 1642 Valves- 1643 Vacuum- 1644 Sample Cell- 1645 Heating System- 1646 Gases and Chemical Compatibilities- 165 Pretreatment- 1651 Heating- 1652 Atmosphere- 166 Isotherms- 1661 Reactive Gas- 1662 The Combined Isotherm- 1663 The Weak Isotherm- 1664 The Strong Isotherm- 1665 Multiple Isotherms- 167 References- 17 Dynamic Chemisorption: Catalyst Characterization By Flow Techniques- 171 Applications- 172 Sample Requirements- 173 General Description of Equipment- 1731 Flow Path- 1732 Sample Cell- 1733 Gases- 1734 Heating- 1735 Pulse Injection- 1736 Detector- 174 Pretreatment- 175 Pulse Titration- 176 Additional Requirements for Temperature Programmed Methods- 1761 Programmed Heating- 1762 Sample Temperature- 177 Temperature Programmed Reduction- 178 Temperature Programmed Oxidation- 179 Temperature Programmed Desorption- 1791 Some Specific Applications- 17811 Acid/Base- 17812 Oxidizers- 17813 Reducers- 1710 Mass Spectrometry- 1711 Metal Parameters- 1711 References- 18 Mercury Porosimetry: Intra and Inter- Particle Characterization- 181 Applications- 182 Working with Mercury- 183 Experimental Requirements- 184 Sample Cell- 185 Volume Measurement- 186 Contact Angle- 1861 Dynamic Contact Angle- 1862 Static Contact Angle- 187 A Modern Porosimeter- 188 Low Pressure Measurements- 1881 Sample Cell Evacuation- 1882 Filling with Mercury- 1883 Low Pressure Intrusion-Extrusion- 189 High Pressure Measurements- 1810 Scanning Method- 1811 Stepwise Method- 1812 Mercury Entrapment- 1813 Working with Powders- 1814 Inter/Intra Particle Porosity- 1815 Isostatic Crush Strength- 1816 References- 19 Density Measurement- 191 Introduction- 192 True Density- 193 Apparent Density- 194 Open-Closed Porosity- 195 Bulk Density- 196 Tap Density- 197 Envelope or Geometric Density- 198 Effective Density- 199 Density by Mercury Porosimetry- 1910 Standard Methods- 1911 References

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Topics: Porosimetry (55%), Kelvin equation (53%), BET theory (52%) ...read more

1,922 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0021-9517(65)90307-6
B.C. Lippens1, J.H. de Boer1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Valuable information about the specific surface area, the size, and the shapes of pores, the setting in of reversible capillary condensation and of complete filling of pores may be obtained by plotting the experimental volumes of adsorbed nitrogen, V a , as a function of the statistical thickness, t , of the adsorbed layer, as given in Paper I of this series. The V a − t plot, together with the experimental adsorption and desorption isotherm gives a very good picture of the whole pore system.

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1,854 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0927-7757(00)00556-2
L.T. Zhuravlev1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A review article is presented of the research results obtained by the author on the properties of amorphous silica surface. It has been shown that in any description of the surface silica the hydroxylation of the surface is of critical importance. An analysis was made of the processes of dehydration (the removal of physically adsorbed water), dehydroxylation (the removal of silanol groups from the silica surface), and rehydroxylation (the restoration of the hydroxyl covering). For each of these processes a probable mechanism is suggested. The results of experimental and theoretical studies permitted to construct the original model (Zhuravlev model-1 and model-2) for describing the surface chemistry of amorphous silica. The main advantage of this physico-chemical model lies in the possibility to determine the concentration and the distribution of different types of silanol and siloxane groups and to characterize the energetic heterogeneity of the silica surface as a function of the pretreatment temperature of SiO2 samples. The model makes it possible to determine the kind of the chemisorption of water (rapid, weakly activated or slow, strongly activated) under the restoration of the hydroxyl covering and also to assess of OH groups inside the SiO2 skeleton. The magnitude of the silanol number, that is, the number of OH groups per unit surface area, αOH, when the surface is hydroxylated to the maximum degree, is considered to be a physico-chemical constant. This constant has a numerical value: αOH,AVER=4.6 (least-squares method) and αOH,AVER=4.9 OH nm−2 (arithmetical mean) and is known in literature as the Kiselev–Zhuravlev constant. It has been established that adsorption and other surface properties per unit surface area of silica are identical (except for very fine pores). On the basis of data published in the literature, this model has been found to be useful in solving various applied and theoretical problems in the field of adsorption, catalysis, chromatography, chemical modification, etc. It has been shown that the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method is the correct method and gives the opportunity to measure the real physical magnitude of the specific surface area, SKr (by using low temperature adsorption of krypton), for silicas and other oxide dispersed solids.

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  • Fig. 1. The formation of silanol groups on the silica surface: (a) Condensation polymerization; (b) Rehydroxylation.
    Fig. 1. The formation of silanol groups on the silica surface: (a) Condensation polymerization; (b) Rehydroxylation.
  • Fig. 2. Types of silanol groups and siloxane bridges on the surface of amorphous silica, and internal OH groups (see text). Qn-terminology is used in NMR, where n indicates the number of bridging bonds ( O Si) tied to the central Si atom: Q4, surface siloxanes; Q3, single silanols; Q2, geminal silanols (silanediols).
    Fig. 2. Types of silanol groups and siloxane bridges on the surface of amorphous silica, and internal OH groups (see text). Qn-terminology is used in NMR, where n indicates the number of bridging bonds ( O Si) tied to the central Si atom: Q4, surface siloxanes; Q3, single silanols; Q2, geminal silanols (silanediols).
  • Fig. 3. Thermogravimetric analysis of a hydroxylated silica with physically adsorbed water on the surface (the mesoporous silica gel, S=400 m2 g−1): (1) DTG curve, (2) TGA curve (From Vansant et al. [263]).
    Fig. 3. Thermogravimetric analysis of a hydroxylated silica with physically adsorbed water on the surface (the mesoporous silica gel, S=400 m2 g−1): (1) DTG curve, (2) TGA curve (From Vansant et al. [263]).
  • Fig. 4. (1) TGA curve, or total loss of water during thermal treatment of hydrated silica gel: each point on the curve was obtained by summing up the amount of water that came off in fixed temperature intervals and the amount of water measured by the DE method; (2) DTG curve, or rate of the water loss (for each 1°C increase in temperature), obtained by graphic differentiation of curve 1.
    Fig. 4. (1) TGA curve, or total loss of water during thermal treatment of hydrated silica gel: each point on the curve was obtained by summing up the amount of water that came off in fixed temperature intervals and the amount of water measured by the DE method; (2) DTG curve, or rate of the water loss (for each 1°C increase in temperature), obtained by graphic differentiation of curve 1.
  • Fig. 5. Mass thermograms of water for the standard silica sample S-79 (rate of heating b=5.8 grad min−1); T, temperature (K); I, normalized intensity of the peak due to water ion m/Z=18 (arbitrary units): yellow zone corresponding to the free water; light blue zone corresponding to the adsorbed H2O multilayers, region I; dark blue zone corresponding to the adsorbed H2O monolayer, region I; red zone corresponding to the condensation of vicinal OH groups, subregion IIa; crimson zone corresponding to the condensation of free OH groups, subregion IIb. Point A indicates the maximum of kinetic curves 1–8; points Ai, the maxima of curves 9–13 and 15–17 (i=I, II, III,…VIII); curves 8 and 14 are boundary curves (see Table 1 and text).
    Fig. 5. Mass thermograms of water for the standard silica sample S-79 (rate of heating b=5.8 grad min−1); T, temperature (K); I, normalized intensity of the peak due to water ion m/Z=18 (arbitrary units): yellow zone corresponding to the free water; light blue zone corresponding to the adsorbed H2O multilayers, region I; dark blue zone corresponding to the adsorbed H2O monolayer, region I; red zone corresponding to the condensation of vicinal OH groups, subregion IIa; crimson zone corresponding to the condensation of free OH groups, subregion IIb. Point A indicates the maximum of kinetic curves 1–8; points Ai, the maxima of curves 9–13 and 15–17 (i=I, II, III,…VIII); curves 8 and 14 are boundary curves (see Table 1 and text).
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Topics: Specific surface area (59%), Adsorption (56%), Silanol (55%) ...read more

1,743 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0008-6223(00)00155-X
01 Apr 2001-Carbon
Abstract: The theoretical external specific surface area of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes and of carbon nanotube bundles is calculated as a function of their characteristics (diameter, number of walls, number of nanotubes in a bundle). The results are reported in diagrams and tables useful to correlate the microscopic characteristics and the specific surface area of samples. The calculated values are in good agreement with the microscopic characteristics and the specific surface area measurements which have been previously reported in the literature. The specific surface area is a macroscopic parameter which can be helpful to adjust the synthesis conditions of carbon nanotubes.

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  • Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the arrangement of carbon atoms within the graphene layer (a) and of a multi-walled carbon nanotube made up of concentric graphene shells (b).
    Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the arrangement of carbon atoms within the graphene layer (a) and of a multi-walled carbon nanotube made up of concentric graphene shells (b).
  • Fig. 4. Schematic representation of the formation of bundles by successive additions of carbon nanotubes.
    Fig. 4. Schematic representation of the formation of bundles by successive additions of carbon nanotubes.
  • Fig. 2. Specific surface area of carbon nanotubes versus their diameter and number of walls.
    Fig. 2. Specific surface area of carbon nanotubes versus their diameter and number of walls.
  • Fig. 3. Schematic representation of the triangular arrangement of carbon nanotubes within a bundle.
    Fig. 3. Schematic representation of the triangular arrangement of carbon nanotubes within a bundle.
  • Fig. 4. Schematic representation of the formation of bundles by successive additions of carbon nanotubes.
    Fig. 4. Schematic representation of the formation of bundles by successive additions of carbon nanotubes.
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1,668 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022131
20212,330
20202,710
20192,926
20182,754
20172,632

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

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