Topic

# Spin glass

About: Spin glass is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 10053 publications have been published within this topic receiving 201220 citations. The topic is also known as: Spin glasses.

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TL;DR: In this article, the most characteristic properties of spin glass systems are described, and related phenomena in other glassy systems (dielectric and orientational glasses) are mentioned, and a review summarizes recent developments in the theory of spin glasses, as well as pertinent experimental data.

Abstract: This review summarizes recent developments in the theory of spin glasses, as well as pertinent experimental data. The most characteristic properties of spin glass systems are described, and related phenomena in other glassy systems (dielectric and orientational glasses) are mentioned. The Edwards-Anderson model of spin glasses and its treatment within the replica method and mean-field theory are outlined, and concepts such as "frustration," "broken replica symmetry," "broken ergodicity," etc., are discussed. The dynamic approach to describing the spin glass transition is emphasized. Monte Carlo simulations of spin glasses and the insight gained by them are described. Other topics discussed include site-disorder models, phenomenological theories for the frozen phase and its excitations, phase diagrams in which spin glass order and ferromagnetism or antiferromagnetism compete, the Ne\'el model of superparamagnetism and related approaches, and possible connections between spin glasses and other topics in the theory of disordered condensed-matter systems.

3,926 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed and self-contained presentation of the replica theory of infinite range spin glasses is presented, paying particular attention to new applications in the study of optimization theory and neural networks.

Abstract: This book contains a detailed and self-contained presentation of the replica theory of infinite range spin glasses. The authors also explain recent theoretical developments, paying particular attention to new applications in the study of optimization theory and neural networks. About two-thirds of the book are a collection of the most interesting and pedagogical articles on the subject.

3,846 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, an Ising model in which the spins are coupled by infinite-ranged random interactions independently distributed with a Gaussian probability density is considered and the competition between the phases and the type of order present in each is studied.

Abstract: We consider an Ising model in which the spins are coupled by infinite-ranged random interactions independently distributed with a Gaussian probability density. Both "spinglass" and ferromagnetic phases occur. The competition between the phases and the type of order present in each are studied.

3,545 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new theory of spin glasses is proposed, which offers a simple explanation of the cusp found experimentally in the susceptibility, which is smoothed by an external field.

Abstract: A new theory of the class of dilute magnetic alloys, called the spin glasses, is proposed which offers a simple explanation of the cusp found experimentally in the susceptibility. The argument is that because the interaction between the spins dissolved in the matrix oscillates in sign according to distance, there will be no mean ferro- or antiferromagnetism, but there will be a ground state with the spins aligned in definite directions, even if these directions appear to be at random. At the critical temperature the existence of these preferred directions affects the orientation of the spins, leading to a cusp in the susceptibility. This cusp is smoothed by an external field. Although the behaviour at low t needs a quantum mechanical treatment, it is interesting to complete the classical calculations down to t=0. Classically the susceptibility tends to a constant value at t=0, and the specific heat to a constant value.

2,965 citations

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TL;DR: It is proposed thatferromagnetic exchange here, and in dilute ferromagnetic nitrides, is mediated by shallow donor electrons that form bound magnetic polarons, which overlap to create a spin-split impurity band.

Abstract: Dilute ferromagnetic oxides having Curie temperatures far in excess of 300 K and exceptionally large ordered moments per transition-metal cation challenge our understanding of magnetism in solids. These materials are high-k dielectrics with degenerate or thermally activated n-type semiconductivity. Conventional super-exchange or double-exchange interactions cannot produce long-range magnetic order at concentrations of magnetic cations of a few percent. We propose that ferromagnetic exchange here, and in dilute ferromagnetic nitrides, is mediated by shallow donor electrons that form bound magnetic polarons, which overlap to create a spin-split impurity band. The Curie temperature in the mean-field approximation varies as (xdelta)(1/2) where x and delta are the concentrations of magnetic cations and donors, respectively. High Curie temperatures arise only when empty minority-spin or majority-spin d states lie at the Fermi level in the impurity band. The magnetic phase diagram includes regions of semiconducting and metallic ferromagnetism, cluster paramagnetism, spin glass and canted antiferromagnetism.

2,743 citations