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Spin polarization

About: Spin polarization is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 27786 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 747215 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Nov 2001-Science
TL;DR: This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron, which has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices.

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Abstract: This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron. Either adding the spin degree of freedom to conventional charge-based electronic devices or using the spin alone has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices. To successfully incorporate spins into existing semiconductor technology, one has to resolve technical issues such as efficient injection, transport, control and manipulation, and detection of spin polarization as well as spin-polarized currents. Recent advances in new materials engineering hold the promise of realizing spintronic devices in the near future. We review the current state of the spin-based devices, efforts in new materials fabrication, issues in spin transport, and optical spin manipulation.

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9,209 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Spintronics, or spin electronics, involves the study of active control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid-state systems. This article reviews the current status of this subject, including both recent advances and well-established results. The primary focus is on the basic physical principles underlying the generation of carrier spin polarization, spin dynamics, and spin-polarized transport in semiconductors and metals. Spin transport differs from charge transport in that spin is a nonconserved quantity in solids due to spin-orbit and hyperfine coupling. The authors discuss in detail spin decoherence mechanisms in metals and semiconductors. Various theories of spin injection and spin-polarized transport are applied to hybrid structures relevant to spin-based devices and fundamental studies of materials properties. Experimental work is reviewed with the emphasis on projected applications, in which external electric and magnetic fields and illumination by light will be used to control spin and charge dynamics to create new functionalities not feasible or ineffective with conventional electronics.

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8,325 citations


37


Journal ArticleDOI
John C. Slonczewski1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A new mechanism is proposed for exciting the magnetic state of a ferromagnet. Assuming ballistic conditions and using WKB wave functions, we predict that a transfer of vectorial spin accompanies an electric current flowing perpendicular to two parallel magnetic films connected by a normal metallic spacer. This spin transfer drives motions of the two magnetization vectors within their instantaneously common plane. Consequent new mesoscopic precession and switching phenomena with potential applications are predicted.

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5,440 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Charles L. Kane1, Eugene J. Mele1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Graphene is converted from an ideal two-dimensional semimetallic state to a quantum spin Hall insulator and the spin and charge conductances in these edge states are calculated and the effects of temperature, chemical potential, Rashba coupling, disorder, and symmetry breaking fields are discussed.

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Abstract: We study the effects of spin orbit interactions on the low energy electronic structure of a single plane of graphene. We find that in an experimentally accessible low temperature regime the symmetry allowed spin orbit potential converts graphene from an ideal two-dimensional semimetallic state to a quantum spin Hall insulator. This novel electronic state of matter is gapped in the bulk and supports the transport of spin and charge in gapless edge states that propagate at the sample boundaries. The edge states are nonchiral, but they are insensitive to disorder because their directionality is correlated with spin. The spin and charge conductances in these edge states are calculated and the effects of temperature, chemical potential, Rashba coupling, disorder, and symmetry breaking fields are discussed.

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5,158 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Hideo Ohno1Institutions (1)
14 Aug 1998-Science
TL;DR: The magnetic coupling in all semiconductor ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic layered structures, together with the possibility of spin filtering in RTDs, shows the potential of the present material system for exploring new physics and for developing new functionality toward future electronics.

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Abstract: REVIEW Semiconductor devices generally take advantage of the charge of electrons, whereas magnetic materials are used for recording information involving electron spin. To make use of both charge and spin of electrons in semiconductors, a high concentration of magnetic elements can be introduced in nonmagnetic III-V semiconductors currently in use for devices. Low solubility of magnetic elements was overcome by low-temperature nonequilibrium molecular beam epitaxial growth, and ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As was realized. Magnetotransport measurements revealed that the magnetic transition temperature can be as high as 110 kelvin. The origin of the ferromagnetic interaction is discussed. Multilayer heterostructures including resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have also successfully been fabricated. The magnetic coupling between two ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As films separated by a nonmagnetic layer indicated the critical role of the holes in the magnetic coupling. The magnetic coupling in all semiconductor ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic layered structures, together with the possibility of spin filtering in RTDs, shows the potential of the present material system for exploring new physics and for developing new functionality toward future electronics.

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4,189 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202222
2021563
2020573
2019570
2018615
2017959

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

David D. Awschalom

98 papers, 20.6K citations

Sadamichi Maekawa

67 papers, 7.2K citations

Eiji Saitoh

66 papers, 6.5K citations

Józef Barnaś

58 papers, 974 citations

Dmitri R. Yakovlev

56 papers, 940 citations