About: Spinocerebellar ataxia is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4128 publications have been published within this topic receiving 140521 citations. The topic is also known as: autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia & cerebellar ataxia, autosomal dominant.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: There is a direct correlation between the size of the (CAG)n repeat expansion and the age–of–onset of SCA1, with larger alleles occurring in juvenile cases.
Abstract: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by neurodegeneration of the cerebellum, spinal cord and brainstem. A 1.2-Megabase stretch of DNA from the short arm of chromosome 6 containing the SCA1 locus was isolated in a yeast artificial chromosome contig and subcloned into cosmids. A highly polymorphic CAG repeat was identified in this region and was found to be unstable and expanded in individuals with SCA1. There is a direct correlation between the size of the (CAG)n repeat expansion and the age-of-onset of SCA1, with larger alleles occurring in juvenile cases. We also show that the repeat is present in a 10 kilobase mRNA transcript. SCA1 is therefore the fifth genetic disorder to display a mutational mechanism involving an unstable trinucleotide repeat.
TL;DR: It is concluded that a small polyglutamine expansion in the human α1A calcium channel is most likely the cause of a newly classified autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, SCA6.
Abstract: A polymorphic CAG repeat was identified in the human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit. To test the hypothesis that expansion of this CAG repeat could be the cause of an inherited progressive ataxia, we genotyped a large number of unrelated controls and ataxia patients. Eight unrelated patients with late onset ataxia had alleles with larger repeat numbers (21‐27) compared to the number of repeats (4‐16) in 475 non‐ataxia individuals. Analysis of the repeat length in families of the affected individuals revealed that the expansion segregated with the phenotype in every patient. We identified six isoforms of the human α1A calcium channel subunit. The CAG repeat is within the open reading frame and is predicted to encode glutamine in three of the isoforms. We conclude that a small polyglutamine expansion in the human α1A calcium channel is most likely the cause of a newly classified autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, SCA6.
TL;DR: The Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia is a reliable and valid measure of ataxia, making it an appropriate primary outcome measure for clinical trials.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable and valid clinical scale measuring the severity of ataxia. METHODS: The authors devised the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and tested it in two trials of 167 and 119 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia. RESULTS: The mean time to administer SARA in patients was 14.2 +/- 7.5 minutes (range 5 to 40). Interrater reliability was high, with an intraclass coefficient (ICC) of 0.98. Test-retest reliability was high with an ICC of 0.90. Internal consistency was high as indicated by Cronbach's alpha of 0.94. Factorial analysis revealed that the rating results were determined by a single factor. SARA ratings showed a linear relation to global assessments using a visual analogue scale, suggesting linearity of the scale (p < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.98). SARA score increased with the disease stage (p < 0.001) and was closely correlated with the Barthel Index (r = -0.80, p < 0.001) and part IV (functional assessment) of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS-IV) (r = -0.89, p < 0.0001), whereas it had only a weak correlation with disease duration (r = 0.34, p < 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: The Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia is a reliable and valid measure of ataxia, making it an appropriate primary outcome measure for clinical trials.
TL;DR: It is suggested that ASK1 is a key element in ER stress-induced cell death that plays an important role in the neuropathological alterations in polyQ diseases.
Abstract: Expansion of CAG trinucleotide repeats that encode polyglutamine is the underlying cause of at least nine inherited human neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease and spinocerebellar ataxias. PolyQ fragments accumulate as aggregates in the cytoplasm and/or in the nucleus, and induce neuronal cell death. However, the molecular mechanism of polyQ-induced cell death is controversial. Here, we show the following: (1) polyQ with pathogenic repeat length triggers ER stress through proteasomal dysfunction; (2) ER stress activates ASK 1 through formation of an IRE1-TRAF2-ASK1 complex; and (3) ASK1(-/-) primary neurons are defective in polyQ-, proteasome inhibitor-, and ER stress-induced JNK activation and cell death. These findings suggest that ASK1 is a key element in ER stress-induced cell death that plays an important role in the neuropathological alterations in polyQ diseases.
TL;DR: A model for pathogenesis that illuminates the unifying features of these polyglutamine disorders is concluded, and may prove relevant to other neurodegenerative disorders as well.
Abstract: A growing number of neurodegenerative diseases have been found to result from the expansion of an unstable trinucleotide repeat. Over the past 6 years, researchers have focused on identifying the mechanism by which the expanded polyglutamine tract renders a protein toxic to a subset of vulnerable neurons. In this review, we summarize the clinicopathologic features of these disorders (spinobulbar muscular atrophy, Huntington disease, and the spinocerebellar ataxias, including dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy), describe the genes involved and what is known about their products, and discuss the model systems that have lent insight into pathogenesis. The review concludes with a model for pathogenesis that illuminates the unifying features of these polyglutamine disorders. This model may prove relevant to other neurodegenerative disorders as well.
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