Topic

# Split-ring resonator

About: Split-ring resonator is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6144 publications have been published within this topic receiving 144516 citations.

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TL;DR: These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root ofɛ·μ for the frequencies where both the permittivity and the permeability are negative.

Abstract: We present experimental scattering data at microwave frequencies on a structured metamaterial that exhibits a frequency band where the effective index of refraction (n) is negative. The material consists of a two-dimensional array of repeated unit cells of copper strips and split ring resonators on interlocking strips of standard circuit board material. By measuring the scattering angle of the transmitted beam through a prism fabricated from this material, we determine the effective n, appropriate to Snell's law. These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root of epsilon.mu for the frequencies where both the permittivity (epsilon) and the permeability (mu) are negative. Configurations of geometrical optical designs are now possible that could not be realized by positive index materials.

8,477 citations

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TL;DR: A composite medium, based on a periodic array of interspaced conducting nonmagnetic split ring resonators and continuous wires, that exhibits a frequency region in the microwave regime with simultaneously negative values of effective permeability and permittivity varepsilon(eff)(omega).

Abstract: We demonstrate a composite medium, based on a periodic array of interspaced conducting nonmagnetic split ring resonators and continuous wires, that exhibits a frequency region in the microwave regime with

8,057 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed the reflection and transmission coefficients calculated from transfer matrix simulations on finite lengths of electromagnetic metamaterials, to determine the effective permittivity and permeability.

Abstract: We analyze the reflection and transmission coefficients calculated from transfer matrix simulations on finite lengths of electromagnetic metamaterials, to determine the effective permittivity ~«! and permeability ~m! .W e perform this analysis on structures composed of periodic arrangements of wires, split ring resonators ~SRRs!, and both wires and SRRs. We find the recovered frequency-dependent« and m are entirely consistent with analytic expressions predicted by effective medium arguments. Of particular relevance are that a wire medium exhibits a frequency region in which the real part of « is negative, and SRRs produce a frequency region in which the real part of m is negative. In the combination structure, at frequencies where both the recovered real parts of « and m are simultaneously negative, the real part of the index of refraction is also found to be unambiguously negative.

2,689 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown here that a modification of the standard S-parameter retrieval procedure yields physically reasonable values for the retrieved electromagnetic parameters, even when there is significant inhomogeneity within the unit cell of the structure.

Abstract: We discuss the validity of standard retrieval methods that assign bulk electromagnetic properties, such as the electric permittivity « and the magnetic permeability m, from calculations of the scattering sSd parameters for finite-thickness samples. S-parameter retrieval methods have recently become the principal means of characterizing artificially structured metamaterials, which, by nature, are inherently inhomogeneous. While the unit cell of a metamaterial can be made considerably smaller than the free space wavelength, there remains a significant variation of the phase across the unit cell at operational frequencies in nearly all metamaterial structures reported to date. In this respect, metamaterials do not rigorously satisfy an effective medium limit and are closer conceptually to photonic crystals. Nevertheless, we show here that a modification of the standard S-parameter retrieval procedure yields physically reasonable values for the retrieved electromagnetic parameters, even when there is significant inhomogeneity within the unit cell of the structure. We thus distinguish a metamaterial regime, as opposed to the effective medium or photonic crystal regimes, in which a refractive index can be rigorously established but where the wave impedance can only be approximately defined. We present numerical simulations on typical metamaterial structures to illustrate the modified retrieval algorithm and the impact on the retrieved material parameters. We find that no changes to the standard retrieval procedures are necessary when the inhomogeneous unit cell is symmetric along the propagation axis; however, when the unit cell does not possess this symmetry, a modified procedure—in which a periodic structure is assumed—is required to obtain meaningful electromagnetic material parameters. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036617

2,565 citations

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TL;DR: Bulk optical metamaterials open up prospects for studies of 3D optical effects and applications associated with NIMs and zero-index materials such as reversed Doppler effect, superlenses, optical tunnelling devices, compact resonators and highly directional sources.

Abstract: Metamaterials are artificially engineered structures that have properties, such as a negative refractive index, not attainable with naturally occurring materials. Negative-index metamaterials (NIMs) were first demonstrated for microwave frequencies, but it has been challenging to design NIMs for optical frequencies and they have so far been limited to optically thin samples because of significant fabrication challenges and strong energy dissipation in metals. Such thin structures are analogous to a monolayer of atoms, making it difficult to assign bulk properties such as the index of refraction. Negative refraction of surface plasmons was recently demonstrated but was confined to a two-dimensional waveguide. Three-dimensional (3D) optical metamaterials have come into focus recently, including the realization of negative refraction by using layered semiconductor metamaterials and a 3D magnetic metamaterial in the infrared frequencies; however, neither of these had a negative index of refraction. Here we report a 3D optical metamaterial having negative refractive index with a very high figure of merit of 3.5 (that is, low loss). This metamaterial is made of cascaded 'fishnet' structures, with a negative index existing over a broad spectral range. Moreover, it can readily be probed from free space, making it functional for optical devices. We construct a prism made of this optical NIM to demonstrate negative refractive index at optical frequencies, resulting unambiguously from the negative phase evolution of the wave propagating inside the metamaterial. Bulk optical metamaterials open up prospects for studies of 3D optical effects and applications associated with NIMs and zero-index materials such as reversed Doppler effect, superlenses, optical tunnelling devices, compact resonators and highly directional sources.

2,025 citations