Topic

# Spontaneous symmetry breaking

About: Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 11399 publications have been published within this topic receiving 372978 citations.

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5,265 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the spin-one quanta of some of the gauge fields acquire mass; the longitudinal degrees of freedom of these particles (which would be absent if their mass were zero) go over into the Goldstone bosons when the coupling tends to zero.

Abstract: In a recent note' it was shown that the Goldstone theorem, ' that Lorentz-covaria. nt field theories in which spontaneous breakdown of symmetry under an internal Lie group occurs contain zero-mass particles, fails if and only if the conserved currents associated with the internal group are coupled to gauge fields. The purpose of the present note is to report that, as a consequence of this coupling, the spin-one quanta of some of the gauge fields acquire mass; the longitudinal degrees of freedom of these particles (which would be absent if their mass were zero) go over into the Goldstone bosons when the coupling tends to zero. This phenomenon is just the relativistic analog of the plasmon phenomenon to which Anderson' has drawn attention: that the scalar zero-mass excitations of a superconducting neutral Fermi gas become longitudinal plasmon modes of finite mass when the gas is charged. The simplest theory which exhibits this behavior is a gauge-invariant version of a model used by Goldstone' himself: Two real' scalar fields y„y, and a real vector field A interact through the Lagrangian density

4,437 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the treatment of first-order phase transitions for standard grand unified theories is shown to break down for models with radiatively induced spontaneous symmetry breaking, leading to an explanation of the cosmological homogeneity, flatness, and monopole puzzles.

Abstract: The treatment of first-order phase transitions for standard grand unified theories is shown to break down for models with radiatively induced spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is argued that proper analysis of these transitions which would take place in the early history of the universe can lead to an explanation of the cosmological homogeneity, flatness, and monopole puzzles.

4,298 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that in certain cases vector mesons do indeed acquire mass when the vacuum is degenerate with respect to a compact Lie group, and that strong interaction physics originates from massive gauge fields related to a system of conserved currents.

Abstract: It is of interest to inquire whether gauge vector mesons acquire mass through interaction; by a gauge vector meson we mean a Yang-Mills field associated with the extension of a Lie group from global to local symmetry. The importance of this problem resides in the possibility that strong-interaction physics originates from massive gauge fields related to a system of conserved currents. In this note, we shall show that in certain cases vector mesons do indeed acquire mass when the vacuum is degenerate with respect to a compact Lie group.

4,006 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the possibility that radiative corrections may produce spontaneous symmetry breakdown in theories for which the semiclassical (tree) approximation does not indicate such breakdown, and they find that this theory more closely resembles the theory with an imaginary mass (the Abelian Higgs model) than one with a positive mass; spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs, and the theory becomes a theory of a massive vector meson and a massive scalar meson.

Abstract: We investigate the possibility that radiative corrections may produce spontaneous symmetry breakdown in theories for which the semiclassical (tree) approximation does not indicate such breakdown. The simplest model in which this phenomenon occurs is the electrodynamics of massless scalar mesons. We find (for small coupling constants) that this theory more closely resembles the theory with an imaginary mass (the Abelian Higgs model) than one with a positive mass; spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs, and the theory becomes a theory of a massive vector meson and a massive scalar meson. The scalar-to-vector mass ratio is computable as a power series in $e$, the electromagnetic coupling constant. We find, to lowest order, $\frac{{m}^{2}(S)}{{m}^{2}(V)}=(\frac{3}{2\ensuremath{\pi}})(\frac{{e}^{2}}{4\ensuremath{\pi}})$. We extend our analysis to non-Abelian gauge theories, and find qualitatively similar results. Our methods are also applicable to theories in which the tree approximation indicates the occurrence of spontaneous symmetry breakdown, but does not give complete information about its character. (This typically occurs when the scalar-meson part of the Lagrangian admits a greater symmetry group than the total Lagrangian.) We indicate how to use our methods in these cases.

3,345 citations