Topic

# Spot contract

About: Spot contract is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3437 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 91599 citation(s).

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors find formulas for the values of forward contracts and commodity options in terms of the futures price and other variables, using assumptions like those used in deriving the original option formula.

Abstract: The contract price on a forward contract stays fixed for the life of the contract, while a futures contract is rewritten every day. The value of a futures contract is zero at the start of each day. The expected change in the futures price satisfies a formula like the capital asset pricing model. If changes in the futures price are independent of the return on the market, the futures price is the expected spot price. The futures market is not unique in its ability to shift risk, since corporations can do that too. The futures market is unique in the guidance it provides for producers, distributors, and users of commodities. Using assumptions like those used in deriving the original option formula, we find formulas for the values of forward contracts and commodity options in terms of the futures price and other variables.

2,740 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the hypothesis that the expected rate of return to speculation in the forward foreign exchange market is zero; that is, the logarithm of the forward exchange rate is the market's conditional expectation of the future spot rate, and they were able to reject the simple market efficiency hypothesis for exchange rates from the 1970s and the 1920s.

Abstract: This paper examines the hypothesis that the expected rate of return to speculation in the forward foreign exchange market is zero; that is, the logarithm of the forward exchange rate is the market's conditional expectation of the logarithm of the future spot rate. A new computationally tractable econometric methodology for examining restrictions on a k-step-ahead forecasting equation is employed. Using data sampled more finely than the forecast interval, we are able to reject the simple market efficiency hypothesis for exchange rates from the 1970s and the 1920s. For the modern experience, the tests are also inconsistent with several alternative hypotheses which typically characterize the relationship between spot and forward exchange rates.

2,198 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors find that most of the variation in forward rates is variation in premium, and the premium and expected future spot rate components of forward rates are negatively correlated, and they conclude that the forward market is not efficient or rational.

Abstract: There is a general consensus that forward exchange rates have little if any power as forecasts of future spot exchange rates. There is less agreement on whether forward rates contain time varying premiums. Conditional on the hypothesis that the forward market is efficient or rational, this paper finds that both components of forward rates vary through time. Moreover, most of the variation in forward rates is variation in premium, and the premium and expected future spot rate components of forward rates are negatively correlated.

2,112 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors compare three models of the stochastic behavior of commodity prices that take into account mean reversion, in terms of their ability to price existing futures contracts, and their implication with respect to the valuation of other financial and real assets.

Abstract: In this article we compare three models of the stochastic behavior of commodity prices that take into account mean reversion, in terms of their ability to price existing futures contracts, and their implication with respect to the valuation of other financial and real assets. The first model is a simple one-factor model 'in which the logarithm of the spot price of the commodity is assumed to follow a mean reverting process. The second model takes into account a second stochastic factor, the convenience yield of the commodity, which is assumed to follow a mean reverting process. Finally, the third model also includes stochastic interest rates. The Kalman filter methodology is used to estimate the parameters of the three models for two commercial commodities, copper and oil, and one precious metal, gold. The analysis reveals strong mean reversion in the commercial commodity prices. Using the estimated parameters, we analyze the implications of the models for the term structure of futures prices and volatilities beyond the observed contracts, and for hedging contracts for future delivery. Finally, we analyze the implications of the models for capital budgeting decisions. THE STOCHASTIC BEHAVIOR OF commodity prices plays a central role in the models for valuing financial contingent claims on the commodity, and in the procedures for evaluating investments to extract or produce the commodity. Earlier studies, by assuming that interest rates and convenience yields are constant allowed for a straight forward extension of the procedures developed for common stock option pricing to the valuation of financial and real commodity contingent claims. The assumption, however, is clearly not very satisfactory since it implies that the volatility of future prices is equal to the volatility of spot prices, and that the distribution of future spot prices under the equivalent martingale measure has a variance that increases without bound as the horizon increases. In an equilibrium setting we would expect that when prices are relatively high, supply will increase since higher cost producers of the commodity will enter the market putting a downward pressure on prices. Conversely, when prices are relatively low, supply will decrease since some of

2,062 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed and empirically tested a two-factor model for pricing financial and real assets contingent on the price of oil and applied it to determine the present values of one barrel of oil deliverable in one to ten years time.

Abstract: This paper develops and empirically tests a two-factor model for pricing financial and real assets contingent on the price of oil. The factors are the spot price of oil and the instantaneous convenience yield. The parameters of the model are estimated using weekly oil futures contract prices from January 1984 to November 1988, and the model's performance is assessed out of sample by valuing futures contracts over the period November 1988 to May 1989. Finally, the model is applied to determine the present values of one barrel of oil deliverable in one to ten years time.

1,054 citations