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Spray tower

About: Spray tower is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1028 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 4715 citation(s).

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Abstract: A model based on the penetration theory has been developed to calculate the dynamic absorption rate of sulfur dioxide into a droplet of limestone slurry. The model includes both instantaneous equilibrium reactions and reactions with finite rates; limestone dissolution, sulfite oxidation, gypsum crystallization and the hydrolysis reaction of CO2. The model has been used to quantify the mass transfer within a spray scrubber and to estimate the impact of the reactions with finite rate of the SO2 mass transfer. The variations within the physical mass transfer conditions of a spray scrubber have been simulated by assuming high mass transfer coefficients close to the nozzles and low coefficients below the spray region. The developed concentration profiles of the diffusing species and the depth of penetration have been determined for different penetration times. The calculations show that the absorption of SO2 into a limestone spray scrubber to a large extent is liquid-side controlled. Only at the very top of the absorber, where the partial pressure of SO2 is low, is the gas film resistance above 50%. Limestone dissolution close to the gas-liquid interface has been shown to be of significance at low pH and in the parts of the absorber where the internal circulation inside the droplets is low. The impact of the hydrolysis reaction of CO2 on the absorption rate of SO2 has been studied by varying the reaction rate constant. Simulations show that the rate constant has a large impact on local absorption rates. Depending on the length of the contact time between the gas and the liquid, the assumption of an instantaneous hydrolysis reaction has an impact on the overall SO2 absorption rate. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. (Less)

133 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The absorption of NO from a gas stream containing SO{sub 2} by aqueous solution of NaClO{sub 2} was studied in a bench scale scrubber. NO{sub x} removal of up to 95% was obtained using a packed bed scrubber. The corresponding SO{sub 2} removals were 100%. Experiments were also conducted in a bubble column and a spray chamber scrubber in order to obtain engineering data for scale-up and process design. A novel UV/Vis photodiode array (PDA) method was developed for real-time monitoring of oxychlorine compounds in the scrubbing solutions. As a consequence of the data obtained with the PDA system, a much better understanding of the chemistry of the scrubbing system has led to a simpler mass transfer model than is available in the literature. Absorption rates are reported in terms of overall reaction rates for a spray chamber scrubber and height of transfer units for a packed bed scrubber.

71 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A detailed process model of the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system has been presented. This model can be used to calculate indispensable parameters for estimating costs and next to minimize capital and operating costs. The process model describes most important stage of SO2 removal running in an absorber and a holding tank. It includes absorption of sulfur dioxide, oxidation of SO3-, dissolution of limestone, and crystallization of gypsum. An assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium in the solution has been used. SO2 removal and limestone dissolution calculation has been based on stagnant-film theory. The model has been used for predicting the SO2 removal efficiency in the spray scrubber for process parameters, e.g., L/G, droplet diameter, stoichiometric ratio Ca/S, height of the absorption section, gas velocity, concentration in liquid-phase ions of Mg2+ and Cl-, and liquid pH. This model could be used to describe a multilevel spray system, too. The results of this model are in agreement with d...

71 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: In this work the simulation of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) unit with spray tower of a power plant is presented, aiming at an efficient follow-up and the optimization of the FGD system operation. The dynamic model developed to simulate the performance of the system has been validated with operation data collected over a long period of time. All the partaking physical and chemical processes like the limestone dissolution, the crystallization of calcium sulfite and gypsum and the oxidation of sulfite ions have been taken into account for the development of the simulation model while the gas absorption by the liquid droplets was based on the two-film theory. The effect of the mean diameter of the slurry droplets on the performance of the system was examined, as it was used as an index factor of the normal operation of the system. The operation limits of the system were investigated on the basis of the model developed. It is concluded that the model is capable of simulating the system for significantly different SO 2 loads and that the absorption rate of SO 2 is strongly affected by the liquid dispersion in the tower.

67 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Spray towers with and without fin coils were compared for their efficiency in air dehumidification using triethylene glycol (TEG) solutions. Experiments were conducted using different air flow rates, liquid flow rates, temperature and air humidities, and aqueous TEG solution concentrations. Theoretically, an absorber with fin coils reduces the temperature of the desiccant solution, which leads to a greater amount of water vapor removal from the air. It was evident that the performance of the spray tower with fin coils was better than that of the spray tower without fin coils under similar operating conditions. Mass-transfer correlations were developed for both systems, which considered the changes in gas−liquid flow ratio, temperature, TEG concentration, and some physical properties. A dimensional analysis of the process variables was carried out using the Buckingham Pi method to obtain the dimensionless groups of the correlations. Most of the values predicted by the correlations were within ±10% of the e...

64 citations

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