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Spread spectrum

About: Spread spectrum is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 16287 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 282543 citation(s). The topic is also known as: spread-spectrum & spread-spectrum telecommunications.
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01 Nov 1985-
TL;DR: This month's guest columnist, Steve Bible, N7HPR, is completing a master’s degree in computer science at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, and his research area closely follows his interest in amateur radio.
Abstract: Spread Spectrum It’s not just for breakfast anymore! Don't blame me, the title is the work of this month's guest columnist, Steve Bible, N7HPR (n7hpr@tapr.org). While cruising the net recently, I noticed a sudden bump in the number of times Spread Spectrum (SS) techniques were mentioned in the amateur digital areas. While QEX has discussed SS in the past, we haven't touched on it in this forum. Steve was a frequent cogent contributor, so I asked him to give us some background. Steve enlisted in the Navy in 1977 and became a Data Systems Technician, a repairman of shipboard computer systems. In 1985 he was accepted into the Navy’s Enlisted Commissioning Program and attended the University of Utah where he studied computer science. Upon graduation in 1988 he was commissioned an Ensign and entered Nuclear Power School. His subsequent assignment was onboard the USS Georgia, a trident submarine stationed in Bangor, Washington. Today Steve is a Lieutenant and he is completing a master’s degree in computer science at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. His areas of interest are digital communications, amateur satellites, VHF/UHF contesting, and QRP. His research area closely follows his interest in amateur radio. His thesis topic is Multihop Packet Radio Routing Protocol Using Dynamic Power Control. Steve is also the AMSAT Area Coordinator for the Monterey Bay area. Here's Steve, I'll have some additional comments at the end.

8,574 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a survey of spectrum sensing methodologies for cognitive radio is presented and the cooperative sensing concept and its various forms are explained.
Abstract: The spectrum sensing problem has gained new aspects with cognitive radio and opportunistic spectrum access concepts. It is one of the most challenging issues in cognitive radio systems. In this paper, a survey of spectrum sensing methodologies for cognitive radio is presented. Various aspects of spectrum sensing problem are studied from a cognitive radio perspective and multi-dimensional spectrum sensing concept is introduced. Challenges associated with spectrum sensing are given and enabling spectrum sensing methods are reviewed. The paper explains the cooperative sensing concept and its various forms. External sensing algorithms and other alternative sensing methods are discussed. Furthermore, statistical modeling of network traffic and utilization of these models for prediction of primary user behavior is studied. Finally, sensing features of some current wireless standards are given.

4,613 citations


Book
Andrew J. Viterbi1
01 Jan 1995-
TL;DR: Generating Pseudorandom Signals (Pseudonoise) from PseudOrandom Sequences by Modulation and Demodulation of Spread Spectrum Signals in Multipath and Multiple Access Interference.
Abstract: 1. Introduction. Definition and Purpose. Basic Limitations of the Conventional Approach. Spread Spectrum Principles. Organization of the Book. 2. Random and Pseudorandom Signal Generation. Purpose. Pseudorandom Sequences. Maximal Length Linear Shift Register Sequences. Randomness Properties of MLSR Sequences. Conclusion. Generating Pseudorandom Signals (Pseudonoise) from Pseudorandom Sequences. First- and Second-Order Statistics of Demodulator Output in Multiple Access Interference. Statistics for QPSK Modulation by Pseudorandom Sequences. Examples. Bound for Bandlimited Spectrum. Error Probability for BPSK or QPSK with Constant Signals in Additive Gaussian Noise and Interference. Appendix 2A: Optimum Receiver Filter for Bandlimited Spectrum. 3. Synchronization of Pseudorandom Signals. Purpose. Acquisition of Pseudorandom Signal Timing. Hypothesis Testing for BPSK Spreading. Hypothesis Testing for QPSK Spreading. Effect of Frequency Error. Additional Degradation When N is Much Less Than One Period. Detection and False Alarm Probabilities. Fixed Signals in Gaussian Noise (L=1). Fixed Signals in Gaussian Noise with Postdetection Integration (L>1). Rayleigh Fading Signals (L>/=1). The Search Procedure and Acquisition Time. Single-Pass Serial Search (Simplified). Single-Pass Serial Search (Complete). Multiple Dwell Serial Search. Time Tracking of Pseudorandom Signals. Early-Late Gate Measurement Statistics. Time Tracking Loop. Carrier Synchronization. Appendix 3A: Likelihood Functions and Probability Expressions. Bayes and Neyman-Pearson Hypothesis Testing. Coherent Reception in Additive White Gaussian Noise. Noncoherent Reception in AWGN for Unfaded Signals. Noncoherent Reception of Multiple Independent Observations of Unfaded Signals in AWGN. Noncoherent Reception of Rayleigh-Faded Signals in AWGN. 4. Modulation and Demodulation of Spread Spectrum Signals in Multipath and Multiple Access Interference. Purpose. Chernoff and Battacharyya Bounds. Bounds for Gaussian Noise Channel. Chernoff Bound for Time-Synchronous Multiple Access Interference with BPSK Spreading. Chernoff Bound for Time-Synchronous Multiple Access Interference with QPSK Spreading. Improving the Chernoff Bound by a Factor of 2. Multipath Propagation: Signal Structure and Exploitation. Pilot-Aided Coherent Multipath Demodulation. Chernoff Bounds on Error Probability for Coherent Demodulation with Known Path Parameters. Rayleigh and Rician Fading Multipath Components. Noncoherent Reception. Quasi-optimum Noncoherent Multipath Reception for M-ary Orthogonal Modulation. Performance Bounds. Search Performance for Noncoherent Orthogonal M-ary Demodulators. Power Measurement and Control for Noncoherent Orthogonal M-ary Demodulators. Power Control Loop Performance. Power Control Implications. Appendix 4A: Chernoff Bound with Imperfect Parameter Estimates. 5. Coding and Interleaving. Purpose. Interleaving to Achieve Diversity. Forward Error Control Coding - Another Means to Exploit Redundancy. Convolutional Code Structure. Maximum Likelihood Decoder - Viterbi Algorithm. Generalization of the Preceding Example. Convolutional Code Performance Evaluation. Error Probability for Tailed-off Block. Bit Error Probability. Generalizations of Error Probability Computation. Catastrophic Codes. Generalization to Arbitrary Memoryless Channels - Coherent and Noncoherent. Error Bounds for Binary-Input, Output-Symmetric Channels with Integer Metrics. A Near-Optimal Class of Codes for Coherent Spread Spectrum Multiple Access. Implementation. Decoder Implementation. Generating Function and Performance. Performance Comparison and Applicability. Orthogonal Convolutional Codes for Noncoherent Demodulation of Rayleigh Fading Signals. Implementation. Performance for L-Path Rayleigh Fading. Conclusions and Caveats. Appendix 5A: Improved Bounds for Symmetric Memoryless Channels and the AWGN Channel. Appendix 5B: Upper Bound on Free Distance of Rate 1/n Convolutional Codes. 6. Capacity, Coverage, and Control of Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Networks. General. Reverse Link Power Control. Multiple Cell Pilot Tracking and Soft Handoff. Other-Cell Interference. Propagation Model. Single-Cell Reception - Hard Handoff. Soft Handoff Reception by the Better of the Two Nearest Cells. Soft Handoff Reception by the Best of Multiple Cells. Cell Coverage Issues with Hard and Soft Handoff. Hard Handoff. Soft Handoff. Erlang Capacity of Reverse Links. Erlang Capacity for Conventional Assigned-Slot Multiple Access. Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Outage - Single Cell and Perfect Power Control. Outage with Multiple-Cell Interference. Outage with Imperfect Power Control. An Approximate Explicit Formula for Capacity with Imperfect Power Control. Designing for Minimum Transmitted Power. Capacity Requirements for Initial Accesses. Erlang Capacity of Forward Links. Forward Link Power Allocation. Soft Handoff Impact on Forward Link. Orthogonal Signals for Same-Cell Users. Interference Reduction with Multisectored and Distributed Antennas. Interference Cancellation. Epilogue. References and Bibliography. Index.

2,780 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
07 Nov 2004-
TL;DR: To improve radio sensitivity of the sensing function through processing gain, three digital signal processing techniques are investigated: matched filtering, energy detection and cyclostationary feature detection.
Abstract: There are new system implementation challenges involved in the design of cognitive radios, which have both the ability to sense the spectral environment and the flexibility to adapt transmission parameters to maximize system capacity while coexisting with legacy wireless networks. The critical design problem is the need to process multigigahertz wide bandwidth and reliably detect presence of primary users. This places severe requirements on sensitivity, linearity and dynamic range of the circuitry in the RF front-end. To improve radio sensitivity of the sensing function through processing gain we investigated three digital signal processing techniques: matched filtering, energy detection and cyclostationary feature detection. Our analysis shows that cyclostationary feature detection has advantages due to its ability to differentiate modulated signals, interference and noise in low signal to noise ratios. In addition, to further improve the sensing reliability, the advantage of a MAC protocol that exploits cooperation among many cognitive users is investigated.

2,761 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Performance of time-hopping spread-spectrum multiple-access systems employing impulse signal technology for both analog and digital data modulation formats under ideal multiple- access channel conditions is estimated.
Abstract: Attractive features of time-hopping spread-spectrum multiple-access systems employing impulse signal technology are outlined, and emerging design issues are described. Performance of such communications systems in terms of achievable transmission rate and multiple-access capability are estimated for both analog and digital data modulation formats under ideal multiple-access channel conditions.

2,659 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20222
2021146
2020278
2019354
2018343
2017293

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

L.B. Milstein

75 papers, 2.7K citations

Fumiyuki Adachi

44 papers, 689 citations

Ryuji Kohno

41 papers, 1K citations

Gary J. Saulnier

34 papers, 546 citations

Elvino S. Sousa

26 papers, 1.1K citations