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Sputter deposition

About: Sputter deposition is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 49264 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 746832 citation(s). The topic is also known as: sputter coating.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Tadatsugu Minami1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The present status and prospects for further development of polycrystalline or amorphous transparent conducting oxide (TCO) semiconductors used for practical thin-film transparent electrode applications are presented in this paper. The important TCO semiconductors are impurity-doped ZnO, In2O3 and SnO2 as well as multicomponent oxides consisting of combinations of ZnO, In2O3 and SnO2, including some ternary compounds existing in their systems. Development of these and other TCO semiconductors is important because the expanding need for transparent electrodes for optoelectronic device applications is jeopardizing the availability of indium-tin-oxide (ITO), whose main constituent, indium, is a very expensive and scarce material. Al- and Ga-doped ZnO (AZO and GZO) semiconductors are promising as alternatives to ITO for thin-film transparent electrode applications. In particular, AZO thin films, with a low resistivity of the order of 10−5 Ω cm and source materials that are inexpensive and non-toxic, are the best candidates. However, further development of the deposition techniques, such as magnetron sputtering or vacuum arc plasma evaporation, as well as of the targets is required to enable the preparation of AZO and GZO films on large area substrates with a high deposition rate.

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1,834 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Peter Kelly1, R.D. Arnell1Institutions (1)
01 Mar 2000-Vacuum
Abstract: Magnetron sputtering has become the process of choice for the deposition of a wide range of industrially important coatings. Examples include hard, wear-resistant coatings, low friction coatings, corrosion resistant coatings, decorative coatings and coatings with specific optical, or electrical properties. Although the basic sputtering process has been known and used for many years, it is the development of the unbalanced magnetron and its incorporation into multi-source `closed-field’ systems that have been responsible for the rise in importance of this technique. Closed-field unbalanced magnetron sputtering (CFUBMS) is an exceptionally versatile technique for the deposition of high-quality, well-adhered films. The development, fundamental principles and applications of the CFUBMS process are, therefore, discussed in some detail in this review. Also discussed are other important recent developments in this area, including the pulsed magnetron sputtering process, variable field magnetrons, and the combining of sputtering techniques with other surface coating, or surface modification techniques in duplex production processes.

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1,416 citations


Book
11 Jan 1979-
Abstract: J.L. Vossen and W. Kern, Introduction. S.M. Rossnagel, Glow Discharge Plasma and Sources for Etching and Deposition. C.V. Deshpandey and R.F. Bunshah, Evaporation Processes. P.P. Chow, Molecular Beam Epitaxy. R. Parsons, Sputter Deposition Processes. P.C. Johnson, The Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition of Thin Films. K.F. Jensen and W. Kern, Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition. K.F. Jensen and T. Kuech, Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. J.G. Eden, Photochemical Vapor Deposition. L.C. Klein, Sol-Gel Coatings. R. Reif and W. Kern, Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. G. Lucovsky, D.V. Tsu, R.A. Rudder, and R.J. Markunas, Formation of Inorganic Films by Remote Plasma-Enhanced Chemical-Vapor Deposition. T.M. Mayer and S.D. Allen, Selected Area Processing. H.W. Lehman, Plasma-Assisted Etching. P.R. Puckett, S.L. Michel, and W.E. Hughes, Ion Beam Etching. C.I.H. Ashby, Laser-Driven Etching.

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1,244 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We fabricated ZnO thin-film transistors by rf magnetron sputtering on Si substrates held near room temperature. The best devices had field-effect mobility of more than 2 cm2/V s and an on/off ratio>106. These ZnO films had resistivity ∼105 ohm cm, with high optical transparency (>80% for wavelength >400 nm), and compressive stress <0.5 GPa. The combination of transparency in the visible, excellent transistor characteristics, and low-temperature processing makes ZnO thin-film transistors attractive for flexible electronics on temperature sensitive substrates.

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1,067 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Electrochromic (EC) materials are able to change their optical properties, reversibly and persistently, by the application of an electrical voltage. These materials can be integrated in multilayer devices capable of modulating the optical transmittance between widely separated extrema. We first review the recent literature on inorganic EC materials and point out that today's research is focused on tungsten oxide (colouring under charge insertion) and nickel oxide (colouring under charge extraction). The properties of thin films of these materials are then discussed in detail with foci on recent results from two comprehensive investigations in the authors' laboratory. A logical exposition is obtained by covering, in sequence, structural features, thin film deposition (by sputtering), electronic band structure, and ion diffusion. A novel conceptual model is given for structural characteristics of amorphous W oxide films, based on notions of defects in the ideal amorphous state. It is also shown that the conduction band density of states is obtainable from simple electrochemical chronopotentiometry. Ion intercalation causes the charge-compensating electrons to enter localized states, implying that the optical absorption underlying the electrochromism can be described as ensuing from transitions between occupied and empty localized conduction band states. A fully quantitative theory of such transitions is not available, but the optical absorption can be modeled more phenomenologically as due to a superposition of transitions between different charge states of the W ions (6+, 5+, and 4+). The Ni oxide films were found to have a porous structure comprised of small grains. The data are consistent with EC coloration being a surface phenomenon, most likely confined to the outer parts of the grains. Initial electrochemical cycling was found to transform hydrated Ni oxide into hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases on the grain surfaces. Electrochromism in thus stabilized films is consistent with reversible changes between Ni hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide, in accordance with the Bode reaction scheme. An extension of this model is put forward to account for changes of NiO to Ni2O3. It was demonstrated that electrochromism is associated solely with proton transfer. Data on chemical diffusion coefficients are interpreted for polycrystalline W oxide and Ni oxide in terms of the lattice gas model with interaction. The later part of this review is of a more technological and applications oriented character and is based on the fact that EC devices with large optical modulation can be accomplished essentially by connecting W-oxide-based and Ni-oxide-based films through a layer serving as a pure ion conductor. Specifically, we treat methods to enhance the bleached-state transmittance by mixing the Ni oxide with other oxides characterized by wide band gaps, and we also discuss pre-assembly charge insertion and extraction by facile gas treatments of the films, as well as practical device manufacturing and device testing. Here the emphasis is on novel flexible polyester-foil-based devices. The final part deals with applications with emphasis on architectural “smart” windows capable of achieving improved indoor comfort jointly with significant energy savings due to lowered demands for space cooling. Eyewear applications are touched upon as well.

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1,044 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202249
20211,262
20201,596
20191,941
20181,917
20172,113

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Lars Hultman

234 papers, 11.1K citations

Joseph E Greene

98 papers, 5.9K citations

Ivan Petrov

98 papers, 5.5K citations

Diederik Depla

88 papers, 2.2K citations

Albano Cavaleiro

75 papers, 1.2K citations