About: Squamous carcinoma is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7682 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 217233 citation(s).
23 Dec 2010-Nature
TL;DR: A cell-permeable small molecule (JQ1) that binds competitively to acetyl-lysine recognition motifs, or bromodomains is reported, establishing proof-of-concept for targeting protein–protein interactions of epigenetic ‘readers’, and providing a versatile chemical scaffold for the development of chemical probes more broadly throughout the b romodomain family.
Abstract: Epigenetic proteins are intently pursued targets in ligand discovery. So far, successful efforts have been limited to chromatin modifying enzymes, or so-called epigenetic 'writers' and 'erasers'. Potent inhibitors of histone binding modules have not yet been described. Here we report a cell-permeable small molecule (JQ1) that binds competitively to acetyl-lysine recognition motifs, or bromodomains. High potency and specificity towards a subset of human bromodomains is explained by co-crystal structures with bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family member BRD4, revealing excellent shape complementarity with the acetyl-lysine binding cavity. Recurrent translocation of BRD4 is observed in a genetically-defined, incurable subtype of human squamous carcinoma. Competitive binding by JQ1 displaces the BRD4 fusion oncoprotein from chromatin, prompting squamous differentiation and specific antiproliferative effects in BRD4-dependent cell lines and patient-derived xenograft models. These data establish proof-of-concept for targeting protein-protein interactions of epigenetic 'readers', and provide a versatile chemical scaffold for the development of chemical probes more broadly throughout the bromodomain family.
13 Jun 1991-The New England Journal of Medicine
TL;DR: Preliminary results suggest a new role for chemotherapy in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer and indicate that a treatment strategy involving induction chemotherapy and definitive radiation therapy can be effective in preserving the larynx in a high percentage of patients, without compromising overall survival.
Abstract: Background We performed a prospective, randomized study in patients with previously untreated advanced (Stage III or IV) laryngeal squamous carcinoma to compare the results of induction chemotherapy followed by definitive radiation therapy with those of conventional laryngectomy and postoperative radiation. Methods Three hundred thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive either three cycles of chemotherapy (cisplatin and fluorouracil) and radiation therapy or surgery and radiation therapy. The clinical tumor response was assessed after two cycles of chemotherapy, and patients with a response received a third cycle followed by definitive radiation therapy (6600 to 7600 cGy). Patients in whom ther was no tumor response or who had locally recurrent cancers after chemotherapy and radiation therapy underwent salvage laryngectomy. Results After two cycles of chemotherapy, the clinical tumor response was complete in 31 percent of the patients and partial in 54 percent. After a median follow-up of 33 months, the estimated 2-year survival was 68 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 60 to 76 percent) for both treatment groups (P = 0.9846). Patterns of recurrence differed significantly between the two groups, with more local recurrences (P = 0.0005) and fewer distant metastases (P = 0.016) in the chemotherapy group than in the surgery group. A total of 59 patients in the chemotherapy group (36 percent) required total laryngectomy. The larynx was preserved in 64 percent of the patients overall and 64 percent of the patients who were alive and free of disease. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest a new role for chemotherapy in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer and indicate that a treatment strategy involving induction chemotherapy and definitive radiation therapy can be effective in preserving the larynx in a high percentage of patients, without compromising overall survival.
01 Dec 2008-Journal of Clinical Investigation
Abstract: Tumors contain oxygenated and hypoxic regions, so the tumor cell population is heterogeneous. Hypoxic tumor cells primarily use glucose for glycolytic energy production and release lactic acid, creating a lactate gradient that mirrors the oxygen gradient in the tumor. By contrast, oxygenated tumor cells have been thought to primarily use glucose for oxidative energy production. Although lactate is generally considered a waste product, we now show that it is a prominent substrate that fuels the oxidative metabolism of oxygenated tumor cells. There is therefore a symbiosis in which glycolytic and oxidative tumor cells mutually regulate their access to energy metabolites. We identified monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) as the prominent path for lactate uptake by a human cervix squamous carcinoma cell line that preferentially utilized lactate for oxidative metabolism. Inhibiting MCT1 with alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (CHC) or siRNA in these cells induced a switch from lactate-fueled respiration to glycolysis. A similar switch from lactate-fueled respiration to glycolysis by oxygenated tumor cells in both a mouse model of lung carcinoma and xenotransplanted human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells was observed after administration of CHC. This retarded tumor growth, as the hypoxic/glycolytic tumor cells died from glucose starvation, and rendered the remaining cells sensitive to irradiation. As MCT1 was found to be expressed by an array of primary human tumors, we suggest that MCT1 inhibition has clinical antitumor potential.
28 Jul 2006-Cancer Letters
TL;DR: It is found that the malignant cells require less than half the laser energy to be killed than the benign cells after incubation with anti-EGFR antibody conjugated Au nanoparticles, offering a novel class of selective photothermal agents using a CW laser at low powers.
Abstract: Efficient conversion of strongly absorbed light by plasmonic gold nanoparticles to heat energy and their easy bioconjugation suggest their use as selective photothermal agents in molecular cancer cell targeting. Two oral squamous carcinoma cell lines (HSC 313 and HOC 3 Clone 8) and one benign epithelial cell line (HaCaT) were incubated with anti-epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles and then exposed to continuous visible argon ion laser at 514 nm. It is found that the malignant cells require less than half the laser energy to be killed than the benign cells after incubation with anti-EGFR antibody conjugated Au nanoparticles. No photothermal destruction is observed for all types of cells in the absence of nanoparticles at four times energy required to kill the malignant cells with anti-EGFR/Au conjugates bonded. Au nanoparticles thus offer a novel class of selective photothermal agents using a CW laser at low powers. The potential of using this selective technique in molecularly targeted photothermal therapy in vivo is discussed
TL;DR: Tumor hypoxia adversely affected the prognosis of patients in this study and understanding of the mechanistic relationship between Hypoxia and treatment outcome will allow the development of new and rational treatment programs in the future.
Abstract: Purpose: Tumor hypoxia adversely affects short term clinical radiation response of head and neck cancer lymph node metastases and long term disease-free survival (DFS) in cervix carcinoma. This study was performed to evalaute the relationship between tumor hypoxia and DFS in patients with squamous carcinoma of th ehead and neck (SCCHN). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment tumor pO2 was assessed polagographically in SCCHN patients. All patients were AJCC Stage IV and had pretreatment oxygen measureemnt taken from locally advanced primaries (T3 or T4) or neck nodes ≥ 1.5 cm diameter. Treatment consisted of once daily (2 Gy/day to 66–70 Gy) or twice daily irradiation 91.25 Gy B.I.D. to 70–75 Gy) +/- planned neck dissection (for ≥N2A disease) according to institutiional treatment protocols. Results: Twenty-eight patients underwent tumor pO2 measurement. The average pre-treatment median pO2 was 11.2 mm Hg (range 0.4–60 mm Hg). The DFS at 12 months was 42%. The DFS was 78% for patients with median tmor pO2 > 10 mm Hg but only 22% for median pO2 < 10 mm Hg (p = 0.009). The average tumor median pO2 for relapsing patients was 4.1 mm Hg and 17.1 mm Hg in non-relapsing (NED) patients (p = 0.07). Conclusion: Tumor hypoxia adversely affected the prognosis of patients in this study. Understanding of the mechanistic relatiosnhip between hypoxia and treatment outcome will allow for the development of new and rational treatment programs in the future.