About: Stair climbing is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1610 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 30504 citation(s).
01 Jul 2001-Journal of Biomechanics
TL;DR: The paper focuses on the loading of the femoral implant component but complete data are additionally stored on an associated compact disc that contains complete gait and hip contact force data as well as calculated muscle activities during walking and stair climbing and the frequencies of daily activities observed in hip patients.
Abstract: In vivo loads acting at the hip joint have so far only been measured in few patients and without detailed documentation of gait data. Such information is required to test and improve wear, strength and fixation stability of hip implants. Measurements of hip contact forces with instrumented implants and synchronous analyses of gait patterns and ground reaction forces were performed in four patients during the most frequent activities of daily living. From the individual data sets an average was calculated. The paper focuses on the loading of the femoral implant component but complete data are additionally stored on an associated compact disc. It contains complete gait and hip contact force data as well as calculated muscle activities during walking and stair climbing and the frequencies of daily activities observed in hip patients. The mechanical loading and function of the hip joint and proximal femur is thereby completely documented. The average patient loaded his hip joint with 238% BW (percent of body weight) when walking at about 4 km/h and with slightly less when standing on one leg. This is below the levels previously reported for two other patients (Bergmann et al., Clinical Biomechanics 26 (1993) 969-990). When climbing upstairs the joint contact force is 251% BW which is less than 260% BW when going downstairs. Inwards torsion of the implant is probably critical for the stem fixation. On average it is 23% larger when going upstairs than during normal level walking. The inter- and intra-individual variations during stair climbing are large and the highest torque values are 83% larger than during normal walking. Because the hip joint loading during all other common activities of most hip patients are comparably small (except during stumbling), implants should mainly be tested with loading conditions that mimic walking and stair climbing.
William H. Warren1•Institutions (1)
TL;DR: It is concluded that perception for the control of action reflects the underlying dynamics of the animal-environment system.
Abstract: How do animals visually guide their activities in a cluttered environment? Gibson (1979) proposed that they perceive what environmental objects offer or afford for action. An analysis of affordances in terms of the dynamics of an animal-environment system is presented. Critical points, corresponding to phase transitions in behavior, and optimal points, corresponding to stable, preferred regions of minimum energy expenditure, emerge from variation in the animal-environment fit. It is hypothesized that these points are constants across physically similar systems and that they provide a natural basis for perceptual categories and preferences. In three experiments these hypotheses are examined for the activity of human stair climbing, by varying riser height with respect to leg length. The perceptual category boundary between "climbable" and "unclimbable" stairs is predicted by a biomechanical model, and visually preferred riser height is predicted from measurements of minimum energy expenditure during climbing. It is concluded that perception for the control of action reflects the underlying dynamics of the animal-environment system.
TL;DR: When going up and down stairs large moments are present about weight-bearing joints, but descending movements produce the largest moments, which are considerably higher than those produced during level walking.
Abstract: The motions, forces, and moments at the major joints of the lower limbs of ten men ascending and descending stairs were analyzed using an optoelectronic system, a force-plate, and electromyography. The mean values for the maximum sagittalplane motions of the hip, knee, and ankle were 42, 88, and 27 degrees, respectively. The mean maximum net flexion-extension moments were: at the hip, 123.9 newton-meters going up and 112.5 newton-meters going down stairs; at the knee, 57.1 newton-meters going up and 146.6 newton-meters going down stairs; and at the ankle, 137.2 newton-meters going up and 107.5 newton-meters going down stairs. When going up and down stairs large moments are present about weight-bearing joints, but descending movements produce the largest moments. The magnitudes of these moments are considerably higher than those produced during level walking.
01 Feb 2002-Gait & Posture
TL;DR: Findings suggest that there is a certain inclination angle or angular range where subjects do switch between a level walking and a stair walking gait pattern, and no definite signs could be found indicating thatthere is an adaptation or shift in the motor patterns when moving from level to stair walking.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanics and motor co-ordination in humans during stair climbing at different inclinations Ten normal subjects ascended and descended a five-step staircase at three different inclinations (24 degrees, 30 degrees, 42 degrees ) Three steps were instrumented with force sensors and provided 6 dof ground reactions Kinematics was analysed by a camera-based optoelectronic system An inverse dynamics approach was applied to compute joint moments and powers The different kinematic and kinetic patterns of stair ascent and descent were analysed and compared to level walking patterns Temporal gait cycle parameters and ground reactions were not significantly affected by staircase inclination Joint angles and moments showed a relatively low but significant dependency on the inclination A large influence was observed in joint powers This can be related to the varying amount of potential energy that has to be produced (during ascent) or absorbed (during descent) by the muscles The kinematics and kinetics of staircase walking differ considerably from level walking Interestingly, no definite signs could be found indicating that there is an adaptation or shift in the motor patterns when moving from level to stair walking This can be clearly seen in the foot placement: compared to level walking, the forefoot strikes the ground first--independent from climbing direction and inclination This and further findings suggest that there is a certain inclination angle or angular range where subjects do switch between a level walking and a stair walking gait pattern
TL;DR: It appears that patients with less constrained cruciate-retaining designs of total knee replacement have a more normal gait during stairclimbing than patients with more constrained cruCIate-sacrificing designs.
Abstract: The relationship between gait and prosthetic design was studied during level walking and stair-climbing for twenty-six asymptomatic patients after total knee replacement. An age-matched group of fourteen control subjects was also studied. Five designs of total knee replacement Geomedic, Gunston, total condylar, duopatellar, and Cloutier were used. Differences in gait could be identified on the basis of prosthetic design. The more stressful stair-climbing test produced more clearly differentiated function among the different designs. Patients who were treated with the least-constrained cruciate-retaining (Cloutier) design of prosthesis were the only group that had a normal range of motion during climbing up and down stairs. Two groups of patients with semiconstrained (total condylar and Geomedic) designs had a lower than normal range of knee fiexion while descending stairs. Patients with the other designs of prosthesis had a normal range of knee motion on stair-climbing. Kinematic and anatomical differences among the five designs did not have as great an influence on function during level walking as they did during stair-climbing. The results of this study indicate that after total knee replacement even asymptomatic patients with excellent clinical results have an abnormality of gait. The features of the abnormality were common to most of the patients in the series, and consisted of a shorter than normal stride length, reduced mid-stance knee flexion, and abnormal patterns of external flexion-extension moment of the knee. Although an explanation of these abnormalities of gait is not completely possible at this time, they appear to be related to the interaction of the kinematics of the knee and surrounding soft tissues. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: It appears that patients with less constrained cruciate-retaining designs of total knee replacement have a more normal gait during stairclimbing than patients with more constrained cruciate-sacrificing designs. During level walking, patients with five quite different designs all had abnormalities of gait in spite of a successful clinical result. There is currently a great deal of controversy regarding which type of total knee prosthesis provides better Funded in part by National Institutes of Health Grants KO4AMO()493 and ROIAM2O7O2 and by the Arthritis Foundation. 1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery . Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s N’lcdical Center. 753 Wcst Congress Parkway, Chicago. Illinois 60612. gait. An improved understanding of gait and the variables associated with total knee designs is essential in addressing this controversy. Quantitative studies of gait during activities of daily living are needed to generate this information, and will be useful for the evaluation of total kneereplacement devices and for providing understanding of the loading patterns that may occur during normal activity. Several studies have evaluated gait in patients with knee disease. These investigations included kinematic analyses I .6.7.9.I i.2I , time-distance measurements, and force-plate measurements. There have also been several kinetic and force-analysis studies of function in normal subjects and in patients after treatment for knee disabilitiesaIa14l7ao. The common finding of these studies was that patients who appear to be clinically asymptomatic after joint replacement have abnormal gait patterns. Currently, little is known about the nature of the gait abnormality in patients after total knee replacement or its relationship to total knee-replacement design. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between gait and total knee-replacement design. The prosthetic knees that were selected for this study were considered to be representative of cruciate-sacrificing and sparing designs with varying amounts of constraint. The parameters ofgait that we observed included time-distance patterns and motion and moments of the knee joint. The gait of patients who had received one of five different designs of total knee replacement was evaluated and cornpared with that of control subjects. Materials and Methods Twenty-six patients. in five experimental groups. were studied during level walking and stair-climbing. Patients were grouped according to which of five total knee designs they had received. The five implants selected for this study were the Geomedic, Gunston, total condylar. duopatellar, and Cloutier designs. The five designs of prosthesis were selected to represent varying shapes of the articular surfaces and the retention of one, both, or neither cruciate ligament. The Geomedic prosthesis has fairly congruous articular surfaces. requires removal of the anterior cruciate ligament, permits retention of the ps)sterior cruciate ligament. and does not include a patellar flange or resurfacing. The Gunston prosthesis consists of two separate semicircular runners that articulate with two independent tibial components, permits retention of both cruciate ligaments. and does not include patellar resurfacing or a patellar flange. The total condylar design requires the sacrifice of both cruciate ligaments. with anterior-posterior stability provided by the conformity of the tibial articulating surfaces; all patients with this design had patellar resurfacing. The duopatellar prosthesis permits retention of the posterior cruciate ligament. includes a patellar flange. and allows patellar resurfacing, which was performed in all of the patients whom we examined. The Cloutier prosthesis allows retention of both cruciate ligaments and the femoral condyles are asymmetneal, diverge. and have varying radii of curvature. The tibial component of the Cloutier device consists of flat articular surfaces supported on a metal retainer, and the design has a patellar flange. but patellar resurfacing was not performed in our patients. The patients selected for this study were matched according to postoperative pain. function, passive range of motion, and joint stability. A point system based on The Hospital for Special Surgery knee.rating system was used to quantitate