Topic

# Stall (fluid mechanics)

About: Stall (fluid mechanics) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6780 publications have been published within this topic receiving 105380 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that the enhanced aerodynamic performance of insects results from an interaction of three distinct yet interactive mechanisms: delayed stall, rotational circulation, and wake capture.

Abstract: The enhanced aerodynamic performance of insects results from an interaction of three distinct yet interactive mechanisms: delayed stall, rotational circulation, and wake capture. Delayed stall functions during the translational portions of the stroke, when the wings sweep through the air with a large angle of attack. In contrast, rotational circulation and wake capture generate aerodynamic forces during stroke reversals, when the wings rapidly rotate and change direction. In addition to contributing to the lift required to keep an insect aloft, these two rotational mechanisms provide a potent means by which the animal can modulate the direction and magnitude of flight forces during steering maneuvers. A comprehensive theory incorporating both translational and rotational mechanisms may explain the diverse patterns of wing motion displayed by different species of insects.

2,246 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors visualized the airflow around the wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and a 'hovering' large mechanical model, and found an intense leading-edge vortex was found on the downstroke, of sufficient strength to explain the high-lift forces.

Abstract: INSECTS cannot fly, according to the conventional laws of aerodynamics: during flapping flight, their wings produce more lift than during steady motion at the same velocities and angles of attack1–5. Measured instantaneous lift forces also show qualitative and quantitative disagreement with the forces predicted by conventional aerodynamic theories6–9. The importance of high-life aerodynamic mechanisms is now widely recognized but, except for the specialized fling mechanism used by some insect species1,10–13, the source of extra lift remains unknown. We have now visualized the airflow around the wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta and a 'hovering' large mechanical model—the flapper. An intense leading-edge vortex was found on the down-stroke, of sufficient strength to explain the high-lift forces. The vortex is created by dynamic stall, and not by the rotational lift mechanisms that have been postulated for insect flight14–16. The vortex spirals out towards the wingtip with a spanwise velocity comparable to the flapping velocity. The three-dimensional flow is similar to the conical leading-edge vortex found on delta wings, with the spanwise flow stabilizing the vortex.

1,663 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a study was conducted to assess the feasibility of performing computerized wing design by numerical optimization, which combined a full potential, inviscid aerodynamics code with a conjugate gradient optimization algorithm.

Abstract: A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of performing computerized wing design by numerical optimization. The design program combined a full potential, inviscid aerodynamics code with a conjugate gradient optimization algorithm. Three design problems were selected to demonstrate the design technique. The first involved modifying the upper surface of the inboard 50% of a swept wing to reduce the shock drag subject to a constraint on wing volume. The second involved modifying the entire upper surface of the same swept wing (except the tip section) to increase the lift-drag ratio subject to constraints on wing volume and lift coefficient. The final problem involved modifying the inboard 50% of a low-speed wing to achieve good stall progression. Results from the three cases indicate that the technique is sufficiently accurate to permit substantial improvement in the design objectives.

984 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an approximate theory for post-stall transients in multistage axial compression systems is presented, which leads to a set of three simultaneous nonlinear third-order partial differential equations for pressure rise, and average and disturbed values of flow coefficient, as functions of time and angle around the compressor.

Abstract: An approximate theory is presented for post-stall transients in multistage axial compression systems. The theory leads to a set of three simultaneous nonlinear third-order partial differential equations for pressure rise, and average and disturbed values of flow coefficient, as functions of time and angle around the compressor. By a Galerkin procedure, angular dependence is averaged, and the equations become first order in time. These final equations are capable of describing the growth and possible decay of a rotating-stall cell during a compressor mass-flow transient. It is shown how rotating-stall-like and surgelike motions are coupled through these equations, and also how the instantaneous compressor pumping characteristic changes during the transient stall process.

812 citations