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Static routing

About: Static routing is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 25733 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 576732 citation(s). more


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MCSA.1999.749281
C.E. Perkins, E.M. Royer1Institutions (1)
25 Feb 1999-
Abstract: An ad-hoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of mobile nodes without the required intervention of any centralized access point or existing infrastructure. We present Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), a novel algorithm for the operation of such ad-hoc networks. Each mobile host operates as a specialized router, and routes are obtained as needed (i.e., on-demand) with little or no reliance on periodic advertisements. Our new routing algorithm is quite suitable for a dynamic self starting network, as required by users wishing to utilize ad-hoc networks. AODV provides loop-free routes even while repairing broken links. Because the protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, the demand on the overall bandwidth available to the mobile nodes is substantially less than in those protocols that do necessitate such advertisements. Nevertheless we can still maintain most of the advantages of basic distance vector routing mechanisms. We show that our algorithm scales to large populations of mobile nodes wishing to form ad-hoc networks. We also include an evaluation methodology and simulation results to verify the operation of our algorithm. more

11,180 Citations

Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1145/190809.190336
Charles E. Perkins1, Pravin Bhagwat2Institutions (2)
01 Oct 1994-
Abstract: An ad-hoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of Mobile Hosts without the required intervention of any centralized Access Point. In this paper we present an innovative design for the operation of such ad-hoc networks. The basic idea of the design is to operate each Mobile Host as a specialized router, which periodically advertises its view of the interconnection topology with other Mobile Hosts within the network. This amounts to a new sort of routing protocol. We have investigated modifications to the basic Bellman-Ford routing mechanisms, as specified by RIP [5], to make it suitable for a dynamic and self-starting network mechanism as is required by users wishing to utilize ad hoc networks. Our modifications address some of the previous objections to the use of Bellman-Ford, related to the poor looping properties of such algorithms in the face of broken links and the resulting time dependent nature of the interconnection topology describing the links between the Mobile Hosts. Finally, we describe the ways in which the basic network-layer routing can be modified to provide MAC-layer support for ad-hoc networks. more

6,770 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/MWC.2004.1368893
Jamal N. Al-Karaki1, Ahmed E. Kamal2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks consist of small nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Many routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issue. Routing protocols in WSNs might differ depending on the application and network architecture. In this article we present a survey of state-of-the-art routing techniques in WSNs. We first outline the design challenges for routing protocols in WSNs followed by a comprehensive survey of routing techniques. Overall, the routing techniques are classified into three categories based on the underlying network structure: flit, hierarchical, and location-based routing. Furthermore, these protocols can be classified into multipath-based, query-based, negotiation-based, QoS-based, and coherent-based depending on the protocol operation. We study the design trade-offs between energy and communication overhead savings in every routing paradigm. We also highlight the advantages and performance issues of each routing technique. The article concludes with possible future research areas. more

Topics: Link-state routing protocol (77%), Static routing (75%), Dynamic Source Routing (75%) more

4,572 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ADHOC.2003.09.010
Kemal Akkaya1, Mohamed Younis1Institutions (1)
01 May 2005-
Abstract: Recent advances in wireless sensor networks have led to many new protocols specifically designed for sensor networks where energy awareness is an essential consideration. Most of the attention, however, has been given to the routing protocols since they might differ depending on the application and network architecture. This paper surveys recent routing protocols for sensor networks and presents a classification for the various approaches pursued. The three main categories explored in this paper are data-centric, hierarchical and location-based. Each routing protocol is described and discussed under the appropriate category. Moreover, protocols using contemporary methodologies such as network flow and quality of service modeling are also discussed. The paper concludes with open research issues. � 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. more

  • Fig. 1. The implosion problem. Node A starts by flooding its data to all of its neighbors. D gets two same copies of data eventually, which is not necessary.
    Fig. 1. The implosion problem. Node A starts by flooding its data to all of its neighbors. D gets two same copies of data eventually, which is not necessary.
  • Fig. 2. The overlap problem. Two sensors cover an overlapping geographic region and C gets same copy of data form these sensors.
    Fig. 2. The overlap problem. Two sensors cover an overlapping geographic region and C gets same copy of data form these sensors.
  • Fig. 3. SPIN protocol. Node A starts by advertising its data to node B receiving the requested data (c), node B then sends out advertisements
    Fig. 3. SPIN protocol. Node A starts by advertising its data to node B receiving the requested data (c), node B then sends out advertisements
  • Fig. 5. Query plan at a leader node: the leader node gets all the readings, calculates the average and if it is greater than a threshold sends it to the gateway (sink).
    Fig. 5. Query plan at a leader node: the leader node gets all the readings, calculates the average and if it is greater than a threshold sends it to the gateway (sink).
  • Fig. 6. Chaining in PEGASIS.
    Fig. 6. Chaining in PEGASIS.
  • + 9

3,501 Citations

Open accessBook
01 Jan 2004-
Abstract: One of the greatest challenges faced by designers of digital systems is optimizing the communication and interconnection between system components. Interconnection networks offer an attractive and economical solution to this communication crisis and are fast becoming pervasive in digital systems. Current trends suggest that this communication bottleneck will be even more problematic when designing future generations of machines. Consequently, the anatomy of an interconnection network router and science of interconnection network design will only grow in importance in the coming years. This book offers a detailed and comprehensive presentation of the basic principles of interconnection network design, clearly illustrating them with numerous examples, chapter exercises, and case studies. It incorporates hardware-level descriptions of concepts, allowing a designer to see all the steps of the process from abstract design to concrete implementation. ·Case studies throughout the book draw on extensive author experience in designing interconnection networks over a period of more than twenty years, providing real world examples of what works, and what doesn't. ·Tightly couples concepts with implementation costs to facilitate a deeper understanding of the tradeoffs in the design of a practical network. ·A set of examples and exercises in every chapter help the reader to fully understand all the implications of every design decision. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction to Interconnection Networks 1.1 Three Questions About Interconnection Networks 1.2 Uses of Interconnection Networks 1.3 Network Basics 1.4 History 1.5 Organization of this Book Chapter 2 A Simple Interconnection Network 2.1 Network Specifications and Constraints 2.2 Topology 2.3 Routing 2.4 Flow Control 2.5 Router Design 2.6 Performance Analysis 2.7 Exercises Chapter 3 Topology Basics 3.1 Nomenclature 3.2 Traffic Patterns 3.3 Performance 3.4 Packaging Cost 3.5 Case Study: The SGI Origin 2000 3.6 Bibliographic Notes 3.7 Exercises Chapter 4 Butterfly Networks 4.1 The Structure of Butterfly Networks 4.2 Isomorphic Butterflies 4.3 Performance and Packaging Cost 4.4 Path Diversity and Extra Stages 4.5 Case Study: The BBN Butterfly 4.6 Bibliographic Notes 4.7 Exercises Chapter 5 Torus Networks 5.1 The Structure of Torus Networks 5.2 Performance 5.3 Building Mesh and Torus Networks 5.4 Express Cubes 5.5 Case Study: The MIT J-Machine 5.6 Bibliographic Notes 5.7 Exercises Chapter 6 Non-Blocking Networks 6.1 Non-Blocking vs. Non-Interfering Networks 6.2 Crossbar Networks 6.3 Clos Networks 6.4 Benes Networks 6.5 Sorting Networks 6.6 Case Study: The Velio VC2002 (Zeus) Grooming Switch 6.7 Bibliographic Notes 6.8 Exercises Chapter 7 Slicing and Dicing 7.1 Concentrators and Distributors 7.2 Slicing and Dicing 7.3 Slicing Multistage Networks 7.4 Case Study: Bit Slicing in the Tiny Tera 7.5 Bibliographic Notes 7.6 Exercises Chapter 8 Routing Basics 8.1 A Routing Example 8.2 Taxonomy of Routing Algorithms 8.3 The Routing Relation 8.4 Deterministic Routing 8.5 Case Study: Dimension-Order Routing in the Cray T3D 8.6 Bibliographic Notes 8.7 Exercises Chapter 9 Oblivious Routing 9.1 Valiant's Randomized Routing Algorithm 9.2 Minimal Oblivious Routing 9.3 Load-Balanced Oblivious Routing 9.4 Analysis of Oblivious Routing 9.5 Case Study: Oblivious Routing in the Avici Terabit Switch Router(TSR) 9.6 Bibliographic Notes 9.7 Exercises Chapter 10 Adaptive Routing 10.1 Adaptive Routing Basics 10.2 Minimal Adaptive Routing 10.3 Fully Adaptive Routing 10.4 Load-Balanced Adaptive Routing 10.5 Search-Based Routing 10.6 Case Study: Adaptive Routing in the Thinking Machines CM-5 10.7 Bibliographic Notes 10.8 Exercises Chapter 11 Routing Mechanics 11.1 Table-Based Routing 11.2 Algorithmic Routing 11.3 Case Study: Oblivious Source Routing in the IBM Vulcan Network 11.4 Bibliographic Notes 11.5 Exercises Chapter 12 Flow Control Basics 12.1 Resources and Allocation Units 12.2 Bufferless Flow Control 12.3 Circuit Switching 12.4 Bibliographic Notes 12.5 Exercises Chapter 13 Buffered Flow Control 13.1 Packet-Buffer Flow Control 13.2 Flit-Buffer Flow Control 13.3 Buffer Management and Backpressure 13.4 Flit-Reservation Flow Control 13.5 Bibliographic Notes 13.6 Exercises Chapter 14 Deadlock and Livelock 14.1 Deadlock 14.2 Deadlock Avoidance 14.3 Adaptive Routing 14.4 Deadlock Recovery 14.5 Livelock 14.6 Case Study: Deadlock Avoidance in the Cray T3E 14.7 Bibliographic Notes 14.8 Exercises Chapter 15 Quality of Service 15.1 Service Classes and Service Contracts 15.2 Burstiness and Network Delays 15.3 Implementation of Guaranteed Services 15.4 Implementation of Best-Effort Services 15.5 Separation of Resources 15.6 Case Study: ATM Service Classes 15.7 Case Study: Virtual Networks in the Avici TSR 15.8 Bibliographic Notes 15.9 Exercises Chapter 16 Router Architecture 16.1 Basic Router Architecture 16.2 Stalls 16.3 Closing the Loop with Credits 16.4 Reallocating a Channel 16.5 Speculation and Lookahead 16.6 Flit and Credit Encoding 16.7 Case Study: The Alpha 21364 Router 16.8 Bibliographic Notes 16.9 Exercises Chapter 17 Router Datapath Components 17.1 Input Buffer Organization 17.2 Switches 17.3 Output Organization 17.4 Case Study: The Datapath of the IBM Colony Router 17.5 Bibliographic Notes 17.6 Exercises Chapter 18 Arbitration 18.1 Arbitration Timing 18.2 Fairness 18.3 Fixed Priority Arbiter 18.4 Variable Priority Iterative Arbiters 18.5 Matrix Arbiter 18.6 Queuing Arbiter 18.7 Exercises Chapter 19 Allocation 19.1 Representations 19.2 Exact Algorithms 19.3 Separable Allocators 19.4 Wavefront Allocator 19.5 Incremental vs. Batch Allocation 19.6 Multistage Allocation 19.7 Performance of Allocators 19.8 Case Study: The Tiny Tera Allocator 19.9 Bibliographic Notes 19.10 Exercises Chapter 20 Network Interfaces 20.1 Processor-Network Interface 20.2 Shared-Memory Interface 20.3 Line-Fabric Interface 20.4 Case Study: The MIT M-Machine Network Interface 20.5 Bibliographic Notes 20.6 Exercises Chapter 21 Error Control 411 21.1 Know Thy Enemy: Failure Modes and Fault Models 21.2 The Error Control Process: Detection, Containment, and Recovery 21.3 Link Level Error Control 21.4 Router Error Control 21.5 Network-Level Error Control 21.6 End-to-end Error Control 21.7 Bibliographic Notes 21.8 Exercises Chapter 22 Buses 22.1 Bus Basics 22.2 Bus Arbitration 22.3 High Performance Bus Protocol 22.4 From Buses to Networks 22.5 Case Study: The PCI Bus 22.6 Bibliographic Notes 22.7 Exercises Chapter 23 Performance Analysis 23.1 Measures of Interconnection Network Performance 23.2 Analysis 23.3 Validation 23.4 Case Study: Efficiency and Loss in the BBN Monarch Network 23.5 Bibliographic Notes 23.6 Exercises Chapter 24 Simulation 24.1 Levels of Detail 24.2 Network Workloads 24.3 Simulation Measurements 24.4 Simulator Design 24.5 Bibliographic Notes 24.6 Exercises Chapter 25 Simulation Examples 495 25.1 Routing 25.2 Flow Control Performance 25.3 Fault Tolerance Appendix A Nomenclature Appendix B Glossary Appendix C Network Simulator more

Topics: Static routing (64%), Policy-based routing (63%), Link-state routing protocol (61%) more

3,149 Citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

José Duato

93 papers, 4K citations

Jie Wu

90 papers, 2K citations

J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves

90 papers, 5.3K citations

Mario Gerla

67 papers, 6.4K citations

Hussein T. Mouftah

29 papers, 491 citations

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