About: Stearic acid is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 9762 publications have been published within this topic receiving 187487 citations. The topic is also known as: C18:0 & CH3-[CH2]16-COOH.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The effects of dietary fats on total:HDL cholesterol may differ markedly from their effects on LDL, and the effects of fats on these risk markers should not in themselves be considered to reflect changes in risk but should be confirmed by prospective observational studies or clinical trials.
Abstract: Background: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of individual fatty acids on the ratis of total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipoproteins. Design: We performed a meta-analysis of 60 selected trials and calculated the effects of the amount and type of fat on total:HDL cholesterol and on other lipids. Results: The ratio did not change if carbohydrates replaced saturated fatty acids, but it decreased if cis unsaturated fatty acids replaced saturated fatty acids. The effect on total:HDL cholesterol of replacing trans fatty acids with a mix of carbohydrates and cis unsaturated fatty acids was almost twice as large as that of replacing saturated fatty acids. Lauric acid greatly increased total cholesterol, but much of its effect was on HDL cholesterol. Consequently, oils rich in lauric acid decreased the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. Myristic and palmitic acids had little effect on the ratio, and stearic acid reduced the ratio slightly. Replacing fats with carbohydrates increased fasting triacylglycerol concentrations. Conclusions: The effects of dietary fats on total:HDL cholesterol may differ markedly from their effects on LDL. The effects of fats on these risk markers should not in themselves be considered to reflect changes in risk but should be confirmed by prospective observational studies or clinical trials. By that standard, risk is reduced most effectively when trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids are replaced with cis unsaturated fatty acids. The effects of carbohydrates and of lauric acid‐rich fats on CAD risk remain uncertain. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:1146‐55.
TL;DR: Modifications necessary to the theory of Martin & Synge (1941) to allow for the compressibility of the mobile phase are presented and the application of the gas-liquid partition chromatogram to the separation of volatile fatty acids is described.
Abstract: Industry has long used charcoal or other solid absorbents in columns for cleaning gas streams or for solvent recovery, and more recently Turner (1943), Claesson (1946), Glueckauf, Barker & Kitt (1949), Phillips (1949) and Turkel'taub (1950) have used charcoal in gas chromatograms for the analysis of hydrocarbons and esters. Gas-liquid scrubbing columns have been used in industry for many years but, though Martin & Synge (1941) suggested the use of gas-liquid partition chromatograms for analytical purposes, no work has been reported along these lines. This paper presents modifications necessary to the theory of Martin & Synge (1941) to allow for the compressibility of the mobile phase and describes the application ofthe gas-liquid partition chromatogram to the separation of volatile fatty acids. The separations obtainable by this method are essentially parallel to those obtainable by distillation, but good separations can be achieved much more easily and it is possible to work with very much smaller quantities. In fact, the lower limit of quantity of material used is determined only by the efficiency of detection. In general, far less trouble from azeotrope formation is to be expected, since the concentrations of the substances to be separated in the liquid phase are always low and it may be possible to choose a liquid phase which associates only with one component of the azeotrope. Work on a preparative scale, though theoretically possible, is likely to be inconvenient because of the bulk of the apparatus. The method of detection described here is acid-base titration, but many methods of detecting changes in the composition ofa gas stream could be used and it is intended in future publications to explore some of these, which should extend the range of application to all substances capable of being distilled at the pressure of a few mm. of mercury. In suitable cases the gas-liquid partition column has two principal advantages over the ordinary liquid-liquid partition column: (a) the low viscosity of the mobile phase allows relatively longer columns to be used with a corresponding gain in efficiency and (b) in general it is easier to detect changes in composition of a gas than of a liquid stream. A THEORY OF GAS-LIQUID PARTITION CHROMATOGRAPHY
TL;DR: A collection of Raman spectra of biomolecules that can serve as references for the interpretation of biological materials is presented in this paper, where the most important components present in a cell are included.
Abstract: Raman spectra of biological materials are very complex, because they consist of signals from all molecules present in cells. In order to obtain chemical information from these spectra, it is necessary to know the Raman patterns of the possible components of a cell. In this paper, we present a collection of Raman spectra of biomolecules that can serve as references for the interpretation of Raman spectra of biological materials. We included the most important components present in a cell: (1) DNA and RNA bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine and uracil), (2) amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-serine, L-glutamic acid, L-arginine, L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan, L-histidine, L-proline), (3) fatty acids and fats (lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, 13-methylmyristic acid, 14-methylpentadecanoic acid, 14-methylhexadecanoic acid, 15-methylpalmitic acid, oleic acid, vaccenic acid, glycerol, triolein, trilinolein, trilinolenin), (4) saccharides (β-D-glucose, lactose, cellulose, D-(+)-dextrose, D-(+)-trehalose, amylose, amylopectine, D-(+)-mannose, D-(+)-fucose, D-(−)-arabinose, D-(+)-xylose, D-(−)-fructose, D-(+)-galactosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, chitin), (5) primary metabolites (citric acid, succinic acid, fumarate, malic acid, pyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvate, coenzyme A, acetyl coenzyme A, acetoacetate, D-fructose-6-phosphate) and (6) others (β-carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, glutathione). Examples of Raman spectra of bacteria and fungal spores are shown, together with band assignments to the reference products. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
TL;DR: At present it appears that carbohydrates and monounsaturated fatty acids represent the preferred replacements for saturated fatty acids, although modest increases in polyunsaturated fatty acid and stearic acid, at the expense of cholesterol-raising saturates, probably are safe and may provide for greater variety in the diet.
Abstract: Substantial data are available to indicate that the diet influences serum levels of cholesterol and lipoproteins These data are derived from studies in laboratory animals, from epidemiologic studies, and from human investigations Most research has focused on effects of diet on serum total cholesterol concentrations In recent years, however, attention has shifted to individual lipoproteins, ie, low density lipoproteins (LDL), high density lipoproteins (HDL), and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) Three nutritional factors have been identified that raise serum LDL levels; these are saturated fatty acids, cholesterol itself, and excess caloric intake leading to obesity The major cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acid in the diet is palmitic acid Several nutrients can be substituted for saturated fatty acids to produce a reduction in LDL-cholesterol levels These are polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, and even one saturated fatty acid, stearic acid The latter appears to be converted rapidly into a monounsaturated fatty acid in the body Any of these nutrients can be used for replacement of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids in the diet However, their relative effects on other metabolic processes remain to be determined fully At present it appears that carbohydrates and monounsaturated fatty acids represent the preferred replacements for saturated fatty acids, although modest increases in polyunsaturated fatty acids and stearic acid, at the expense of cholesterol-raising saturates, probably are safe and may provide for greater variety in the diet
TL;DR: Least-squares analysis indicates that stearic acid, as well as saturated fatty acids containing fewer than 12 carbon atoms, have little or no effect on serum cholesterol in man and resolves heretofore puzzling discrepancies in the literature.
Abstract: For many dietary changes satisfactory prediction of the average change in the serum cholesterol level of man in mg./100 ml., is given by Δ Chol. = 1.35(2ΔS − ΔP) + 1.5ΔZ where S and P are percentages of total calories provided by glycerides of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet and Z2 = mg. of dietary cholesterol/1000 Cal. This formula fails, however, when the dietary change involves large amounts of cocoa butter and discrepancies also appear with beef tallow or hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Controlled dietary experiments at the University of Minnesota and at 2 other centers, provide 63 sets of comparisons of serum cholesterol averages for groups of men on each of 2 chemically characterized diets. Least-squares analysis indicates that stearic acid, as well as saturated fatty acids containing fewer than 12 carbon atoms, have little or no effect on serum cholesterol in man. The equation, Δ Chol. = 1.2(2ΔS′ − ΔP) + 1.5ΔZ, yields good correlation (r = 0.93) with the observed values in these 63 sets of data. This formulation also resolves heretofore puzzling discrepancies in the literature.
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