Topic

# Stiffness

About: Stiffness is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 26241 publications have been published within this topic receiving 424405 citations. The topic is also known as: rigidity.

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TL;DR: In this paper, an analysis of the effect of orientation of the fibres on the stiffness and strength of paper and other fibrous materials is made, and the results of the analysis are applied to certain samples of resin bonded fibrous filled materials and moderately good agreement with experimental results is found.

Abstract: An analysis is made of the effect of orientation of the fibres on the stiffness and strength of paper and other fibrous materials. It is shown that these effects may be represented completely by the first few coefficients of the distribution function for the fibres in respect of orientation, the first three Fourier coefficients for a planar matrix and the first fifteen spherical harmonics for a solid medium. For the planar case it is shown that all possible types of elastic behaviour may be represented by composition of four sets of parallel fibres in appropriate ratios. The means of transfer of load from fibre to fibre are considered and it is concluded that the effect of short fibres may be represented merely by use of a reduced value for their modulus of elasticity. The results of the analysis are applied to certain samples of resin bonded fibrous filled materials and moderately good agreement with experimental results is found.

3,100 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a fracture theory for a heterogenous aggregate material which exhibits a gradual strain-softening due to microcracking and contains aggregate pieces that are not necessarily small compared to structural dimensions is developed.

Abstract: A fracture theory for a heterogenous aggregate material which exhibits a gradual strain-softening due to microcracking and contains aggregate pieces that are not necessarily small compared to structural dimensions is developed. Only Mode I is considered. The fracture is modeled as a blunt smeard crack band, which is justified by the random nature of the microstructure. Simple triaxial stress-strain relations which model the strain-softening and describe the effect of gradual microcracking in the crack band are derived. It is shown that it is easier to use compliance rather than stiffness matrices and that it suffices to adjust a single diagonal term of the complicance matrix. The limiting case of this matrix for complete (continuous) cracking is shown to be identical to the inverse of the well-known stiffness matrix for a perfectly cracked material. The material fracture properties are characterized by only three parameters—fracture energy, uniaxial strength limit and width of the crack band (fracture process zone), while the strain-softening modulus is a function of these parameters. A method of determining the fracture energy from measured complete stres-strain relations is also given. Triaxial stress effects on fracture can be taken into account. The theory is verified by comparisons with numerous experimental data from the literature. Satisfactory fits of maximum load data as well as resistance curves are achieved and values of the three material parameters involved, namely the fracture energy, the strength, and the width of crack band front, are determined from test data. The optimum value of the latter width is found to be about 3 aggregate sizes, which is also justified as the minimum acceptable for a homogeneous continuum modeling. The method of implementing the theory in a finite element code is also indicated, and rules for achieving objectivity of results with regard to the analyst's choice of element size are given. Finally, a simple formula is derived to predict from the tensile strength and aggregate size the fracture energy, as well as the strain-softening modulus. A statistical analysis of the errors reveals a drastic improvement compared to the linear fracture theory as well as the strength theory. The applicability of fracture mechanics to concrete is thus solidly established.

2,765 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method for reducing the size of the stiffness matrix by eliminating coordinates at which no forces are applied, based on the procedure used in Ref. 1 for stiffness matrix reduction.

Abstract: Just as it is often necessary to reduce the size of the stiffness matrix in statical structural analysis, the simultaneous reduction of the nondiagonal mass matrix for natural mode analysis may also be required. The basis for one such reduction technique may follow the procedure used in Ref. 1 for the stiffness matrix, namely, the elimination of coordinates at which no forces are applied.

2,249 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new plastic-damage model for concrete subjected to cyclic loading is developed using the concepts of fracture-energy-based damage and stiffness degradation in continuum damage mechanics.

Abstract: A new plastic-damage model for concrete subjected to cyclic loading is developed using the concepts of fracture-energy-based damage and stiffness degradation in continuum damage mechanics. Two damage variables, one for tensile damage and the other for compressive damage, and a yield function with multiple-hardening variables are introduced to account for different damage states. The uniaxial strength functions are factored into two parts, corresponding to the effective stress and the degradation of elastic stiffness. The constitutive relations for elastoplastic responses are decoupled from the degradation damage response, which provides advantages in the numerical implementation. In the present model, the strength function for the effective stress is used to control the evolution of the yield surface, so that calibration with experimental results is convenient. A simple and thermodynamically consistent scalar degradation model is introduced to simulate the effect of damage on elastic stiffness and its recovery during crack opening and closing. The performance of the plastic-damage model is demonstrated with several numerical examples of simulating monotonically and cyclically loaded concrete specimens.

2,208 citations