Topic

# Stochastic optimization

About: Stochastic optimization is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 14753 publications have been published within this topic receiving 567014 citations. The topic is also known as: stochastic optimisation.

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01 Jan 2015TL;DR: This work introduces Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments, and provides a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework.

Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

111,197 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the adaptive estimates of lower-order moments are used for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimate of lowerorder moments.

Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

23,486 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a method for making successive experiments at levels x1, x2, ··· in such a way that xn will tend to θ in probability is presented.

Abstract: Let M(x) denote the expected value at level x of the response to a certain experiment. M(x) is assumed to be a monotone function of x but is unknown to the experimenter, and it is desired to find the solution x = θ of the equation M(x) = α, where a is a given constant. We give a method for making successive experiments at levels x1, x2, ··· in such a way that xn will tend to θ in probability.

9,312 citations

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01 Jan 2010

TL;DR: Adaptive subgradient methods as discussed by the authors dynamically incorporate knowledge of the geometry of the data observed in earlier iterations to perform more informative gradient-based learning, which allows us to find needles in haystacks in the form of very predictive but rarely seen features.

Abstract: We present a new family of subgradient methods that dynamically incorporate knowledge of the geometry of the data observed in earlier iterations to perform more informative gradient-based learning. Metaphorically, the adaptation allows us to find needles in haystacks in the form of very predictive but rarely seen features. Our paradigm stems from recent advances in stochastic optimization and online learning which employ proximal functions to control the gradient steps of the algorithm. We describe and analyze an apparatus for adaptively modifying the proximal function, which significantly simplifies setting a learning rate and results in regret guarantees that are provably as good as the best proximal function that can be chosen in hindsight. We give several efficient algorithms for empirical risk minimization problems with common and important regularization functions and domain constraints. We experimentally study our theoretical analysis and show that adaptive subgradient methods outperform state-of-the-art, yet non-adaptive, subgradient algorithms.

7,244 citations