Topic

# Stokes drift

About: Stokes drift is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1095 publications have been published within this topic receiving 29064 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, the stability of steady nonlinear waves on the surface of an infinitely deep fluid with a free surface was studied. And the authors considered the problem of stability of surface waves as part of the more general problem of nonlinear wave in media with dispersion.

Abstract: We study the stability of steady nonlinear waves on the surface of an infinitely deep fluid [1, 2]. In section 1, the equations of hydrodynamics for an ideal fluid with a free surface are transformed to canonical variables: the shape of the surface η(r, t) and the hydrodynamic potential ψ(r, t) at the surface are expressed in terms of these variables. By introducing canonical variables, we can consider the problem of the stability of surface waves as part of the more general problem of nonlinear waves in media with dispersion [3,4]. The resuits of the rest of the paper are also easily applicable to the general case.

2,177 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a general theory of mass transport is developed, which takes account of the viscosity, and leads to results in agreement with observation, and is shown that the nature of the motion in the interior depends upon the ratio of the wave amplitude a to the thickness δ of the boundary layer.

Abstract: It was shown by Stokes that in a water wave the particles of fluid possess, apart from their orbital motion, a steady second-order drift velocity (usually called the mass-transport velocity). Recent experiments, however, have indicated that the mass-transport velocity can be very different from that predicted by Stokes on the assumption of a perfect, non-viscous fluid. In this paper a general theory of mass transport is developed, which takes account of the viscosity, and leads to results in agreement with observation. Part I deals especially with the interior of the fluid. It is shown that the nature of the motion in the interior depends upon the ratio of the wave amplitude a to the thickness $\delta $ of the boundary layer: when a$^{2}$/$\delta ^{2}$ is small the diffusion of vorticity takes place by viscous 'conduction'; when a$^{2}$/$\delta ^{2}$ is large, by convection with the mass-transport velocity. Appropriate field equations for the stream function of the mass transport are derived. The boundary layers, however, require separate consideration. In part II special attention is given to the boundary layers, and a general theory is developed for two types of oscillating boundary: when the velocities are prescribed at the boundary, and when the stresses are prescribed. Whenever the motion is simple-harmonic the equations of motion can be integrated exactly. A general method is described for determining the mass transport throughout the fluid in the presence of an oscillating body, or with an oscillating stress at the boundary. In part III, the general method of solution described in parts I and II is applied to the cases of a progressive and a standing wave in water of uniform depth. The solutions are markedly different from the perfect-fluid solutions with irrotational motion. The chief characteristic of the progressive-wave solution is a strong forward velocity near the bottom. The predicted maximum velocity near the bottom agrees well with that observed by Bagnold.

1,139 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a method for following the time-history of space-periodic irrotational surface waves, where the only independent variables are the coordinates and velocity potential of marked particles at the free surface at each time step an integral equation is solved for the new normal component of velocity.

Abstract: Plunging breakers are beyond the reach of all known analytical approximations Previous numerical computations have succeeded only in integrating the equations of motion up to the instant when the surface becomes vertical In this paper we present a new method for following the time-history of space-periodic irrotational surface waves The only independent variables are the coordinates and velocity potential of marked particles at the free surface At each time-step an integral equation is solved for the new normal component of velocity The method is faster and more accurate than previous methods based on a two dimensional grid It has also the advantage that the marked particles become concentrated near regions of sharp curvature Viscosity and surface tension are both neglected The method is tested on a free, steady wave of finite amplitude, and is found to give excellent agreement with independent calculations based on Stokes’s series It is then applied to unsteady waves, produced by initially applying an asymmetric distribution of pressure to a symmetric, progressive wave The freely running wave then steepens and overturns It is demonstrated that the surface remains rounded till well after the overturning takes place

1,129 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a realistic theoretical model of steady Langmuir circulations is constructed, where the wind direction is generated by the Stokes drift of the gravity-wave field acting upon spanwise vorticity deriving from the wind-driven current.

Abstract: A realistic theoretical model of steady Langmuir circulations is constructed. Vorticity in the wind direction is generated by the Stokes drift of the gravity-wave field acting upon spanwise vorticity deriving from the wind-driven current. We believe that the steady Langmuir circulations represent a balance between this generating mechanism and turbulent dissipation.Nonlinear equations governing the motion are derived under fairly general conditions. Analytical and numerical solutions are sought for the case of a directional wave spectrum consisting of a single pair of gravity waves propagating at equal and opposite angles to the wind direction. Also, a statistical analysis, based on linearized equations, is developed for more general directional wave spectra. This yields an estimate of the average spacing of windrows associated with Langmuir circulations. The latter analysis is applied to a particular example with simple properties, and produces an expected windrow spacing of rather more than twice the length of the dominant gravity waves.The relevance of our model is assessed with reference to known observational features, and the evidence supporting its applicability is promising.

621 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, large-eddy simulations of the phase-averaged equations for oceanic currents in the surface planetary boundary layer (PBL), where the averaging is over high-frequency surface gravity waves, are analyzed.

Abstract: Solutions are analysed from large-eddy simulations of the phase-averaged equations for oceanic currents in the surface planetary boundary layer (PBL), where the averaging is over high-frequency surface gravity waves. These equations have additional terms proportional to the Lagrangian Stokes drift of the waves, including vortex and Coriolis forces and tracer advection. For the wind-driven PBL, the turbulent Langmuir number, Latur = (U∗/Us)1/2, measures the relative influences of directly wind-driven shear (with friction velocity U∗) and the Stokes drift Us. We focus on equilibrium solutions with steady, aligned wind and waves and a realistic Latur = 0.3. The mean current has an Eulerian volume transport to the right of the wind and against the Stokes drift. The turbulent vertical fluxes of momentum and tracers are enhanced by the presence of the Stokes drift, as are the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation and the skewness of vertical velocity. The dominant coherent structure in the turbulence is a Langmuir cell, which has its strongest vorticity aligned longitudinally (with the wind and waves) and intensified near the surface on the scale of the Stokes drift profile. Associated with this are down-wind surface convergence zones connected to interior circulations whose horizontal divergence axis is rotated about 45° to the right of the wind. The horizontal scale of the Langmuir cells expands with depth, and there are also intense motions on a scale finer than the dominant cells very near the surface. In a turbulent PBL, Langmuir cells have irregular patterns with finite correlation scales in space and time, and they undergo occasional mergers in the vicinity of Y-junctions between convergence zones.

556 citations