Topic

# Stokes number

About: Stokes number is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2224 publications have been published within this topic receiving 53818 citations. The topic is also known as: Stokes time number.

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Brown University

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the forces on a small rigid sphere in a nonuniform flow are considered from first prinicples in order to resolve the errors in Tchen's equation and the subsequent modified versions that have since appeared.

Abstract: The forces on a small rigid sphere in a nonuniform flow are considered from first prinicples in order to resolve the errors in Tchen’s equation and the subsequent modified versions that have since appeared. Forces from the undisturbed flow and the disturbance flow created by the presence of the sphere are treated separately. Proper account is taken of the effect of spatial variations of the undisturbed flow on both forces. In particular the appropriate Faxen correction for unsteady Stokes flow is derived and included as part of the consistent approximation for the equation of motion.

2,875 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the maximum aggregate size and mass that can be reached by coagulation in protoplanetary disks and found that the evolution of the dust does not follow the previously assumed growth-fragmentation cycles.

Abstract: Context. The sticking of micron sized dust particles due to surface forces in circumstellar disks is the first stage in the production of asteroids and planets. The key ingredients that drive this process are the relative velocity between the dust particles in this environment and the complex physics of dust aggregate collisions. Aims. Here we present the results of a collision model, which is based on laboratory experiments of these aggregates. We investigate the maximum aggregate size and mass that can be reached by coagulation in protoplanetary disks. Methods. We use the results of laboratory experiments to establish the collision model (Guttler et al. (2009)). The collision model is based on some necessary assumptions: we model the aggregates as spheres having compact and porous 'phases' and a continuous transition between these two. We apply this collision model to the Monte Carlo method of Zsom & Dullemond (2008) and include Brownian motion, radial drift and turbulence as the sources of relative velocity between dust particles. Results. We model the growth of dust aggregates at 1 AU at the midplane at three different gas densities. We find that the evolution of the dust does not follow the previously assumed growth-fragmentation cycles. Catastrophic fragmentation hardly occurs in the three disk models. Furthermore we see long lived, quasi-steady states in the distribution function of the aggregates due to bouncing. We explore how the mass and the porosity change upon varying the turbulence parameter and by varying the critical mass ratio of dust particles. Upon varying the turbulence parameter, the system behaves in a non-linear way and the critical mass ratio has a strong effect on the particle sizes and masses. Particles reach Stokes numbers of roughly 10 4 during the simulations. Conclusions. The particle growth is stopped by bouncing rather than fragmentation in these models. The final Stokes number of the aggregates is rather insensitive to the variations of the gas density and the strength of turbulence. The maximum mass of the particles is limited to � 1 g (chondrule sized particles). Planetesimal formation can proceed via the turbulent concentration of these aerodynamically size-sorted chondrule-sized particles.

564 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the interactions between small dense particles and fluid turbulence have been investigated in a downflow fully developed channel in air, at particle mass loadings up to 80% by laser Doppler anemometry.

Abstract: The interactions between small dense particles and fluid turbulence have been investigated in a downflow fully developed channel in air. Particle velocities of, and fluid velocities in the presence of, 50 μm glass, 90 μm glass and 70 μm copper spherical beads were measured by laser Doppler anemometry, at particle mass loadings up to 80%. These particles were smaller than the Kolmogorov lengthscale of the flow and could respond to some but not all of the scales of turbulent motion. Streamwise mean particle velocity profiles were flatter than the mean fluid velocity profile, which was unmodified by particle loading. Particle velocity fluctuation intensities were larger than the unladen-fluid turbulence intensity in the streamwise direction but were smaller in the transverse direction. Fluid turbulence was attenuated by the addition of particles; the degree of attenuation increased with particle Stokes number, particle mass loading and distance from the wall. Turbulence was more strongly attenuated in the transverse than in the streamwise direction, because the turbulence energy is at higher frequencies in the transverse direction. Streamwise turbulence attenuation displayed a range of preferred frequencies where attenuation was strongest.

552 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the problem of determining the slow viscous flow of an unbounded fluid past a single solid particle is formulated exactly as a system of linear integral equations of the first kind for a distribution of Stokeslets over the particle surface.

Abstract: The problem of determining the slow viscous flow of an unbounded fluid past a single solid particle is formulated exactly as a system of linear integral equations of the first kind for a distribution of Stokeslets over the particle surface. The unknown density of Stokeslets is identical with the surface-stress force and can be obtained numerically by reducing the integral equations to a system of linear algebraic equations. This appears to be an efficient way of determining solutions for several external flows past a particle, since it requires that the matrix of the algebraic system be inverted only once for a given particle.The technique was tested successfully against the analytic solutions for spheroids in uniform and simple shear flows, and was then applied to two problems involving the motion of finite circular cylinders: (i) a cylinder translating parallel to its axis, for which the local stress force distribution and the drag were determined; and (ii) the equivalent axis ratio of a freely suspended cylinder, which was calculated by determining the couple on a stationary cylinder placed symmetrically in two different simple shear flows. The numerical results were found to be consistent with the asymptotic analysis of Cox (1970, 1971) and in excellent agreement with the experiments of Anczurowski & Mason (1968), but not with those of Harris & Pittman (1975).

507 citations

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TL;DR: The motion of small particles, drops, and bubbles in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number is one of the oldest classes of problems in theoretical fluid mechanics, dating at least to Stokes's analysis of the translation of a rigid sphere through an unbounded quiescent fluid at zero Reynolds number as discussed by the authors.

Abstract: The motion of small particles, drops, and bubbles in a viscous fluid at
low Reynolds number is one of the oldest classes of problems in theoretical
fluid mechanics, dating at least to Stokes’s (1851) analysis of the translation
of a rigid sphere through an unbounded quiescent fluid at zero Reynolds
number.

505 citations