Topic

# Stoner–Wohlfarth model

About: Stoner–Wohlfarth model is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 492 publications have been published within this topic receiving 18127 citations.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

••

04 May 1948-Philosophical transactions - Royal Society. Mathematical, physical and engineering sciences

TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of shape anisotropy on magnetization curves was studied for the case of ellipsoidal spheroids of revolution (e.g., ellipses of revolution).

Abstract: The Becker-Kersten treatment of domain boundary movements is widely applicable in the interpretation of magnetization curves, but it does not account satisfactorily for the higher coercivities obtained, for example, in permanent magnet alloys. It is suggested that in many ferromagnetic materials there may occur ‘particles’ (this term including atomic segregates or ‘islands’ in alloys), distinct in magnetic character from the general matrix, and below the critical size, depending on shape, for which domain boundary formation is energetically possible. For such single-domain particles, change of magnetization can take place only by rotation of the magnetization vector, I O . As the field changes continuously, the resolved magnetization, I H , may change discontinuously at critical values, H O , of the field. The character of the magnetization curves depends on the degree of magnetic anisotropy of the particle, and on the orientation of ‘easy axes’ with respect to the field. The magnetic anisotropy may arise from the shape of the particle, from magneto-crystalline effects, and from strain. A detailed quantitative treatment is given of the effect of shape anisotropy when the particles have the form of ellipsoids of revolution (§§ 2, 3, 4), and a less detailed treatment for the general ellipsoidal form (§ 5). For the first it is convenient to use the non-dimensional parameter such that h = H /(| N a - N b |) I O , N a and N b being the demagnetization coefficients along the polar and equatorial axes. The results are presented in tables and diagrams giving the variation with h of I H / I O . For the special limiting form of the oblate spheroid there is no hysteresis. For the prolate spheroid, as the orientation angle, θ , varies from 0 to 90°, the cyclic magnetization curves change from a rectangular form with | h O | = 1, to a linear non-hysteretic form, with an interesting sequence of intermediate forms. Exact expressions are obtained for the dependence of h θ on θ , and curves for random distribution are computed. All the numerical results are applicable when the anisotropy is due to longitudinal stress, when h = HI 0 /3λδ, where λ is the saturation magnetostriction coefficient, and δ the stress. The results also apply to magneto-crystalline anisotropy in the important and representative case in which there is a unique axis of easy magnetization as for hexagonal cobalt. Estimates are made of the magnitude of the effect of the various types of anisotropy. For iron the maximum coercivities, for the most favourable orientation, due to the magneto-crystalline and strain effects are about 400 and 600 respectively. These values are exceeded by those due to the shape effect in prolate spheroids if the dimensional ratio, m , is greater than 1·1; for m = 10, the corresponding value would be about 10,000 (§7). A fairly precise estimate is made of the lower limit for the equatorial diameter of a particle in the form of a prolate spheroid below which boundary formation cannot occur. As m varies from 1 (the sphere) to 10, this varies from 1·5 to 6·1 x 10 -6 for iron, and from 6·2 to 25 x 10 -6 for nickel (§ 6). A discussion is given (§ 7) of the application of these results to ( a ) non-ferromagnetic metals and alloys containing ferromagnetic ‘impurities’, ( b ) powder magnets, ( e ) high coeravity alloys of the dispersion hardening type. In connexion with ( c ) the possible bearing on the effects of cooling in a magnetic field is indicated.

4,382 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, a mathematical model of the hysteresis mechanisms in ferromagnets is presented based on existing ideas of domain wall motion including both bending and translation, which gives rise to a frictional force opposing the movement of domain walls.

Abstract: A mathematical model of the hysteresis mechanisms in ferromagnets is presented. This is based on existing ideas of domain wall motion including both bending and translation. The anhysteretic magnetization curve is derived using a mean field approach in which the magnetization of any domain is coupled to the magnetic field H and the bulk magnetization M . The anhysteretic emerges as the magnetization which would be achieved in the absence of domain wall pinning. Hysteresis is then included by considering the effects of pinning of magnetic domain walls on defect sites. This gives rise to a frictional force opposing the movement of domain walls. The impedance to motion is expressed via a single parameter k , leading to a simple model equation of state. This exhibits all of the main features of hysteresis such as the initial magnetization curve, saturation of magnetization, coercivity, remanence, and hysteresis loss.

1,989 citations

•

13 Jul 1997TL;DR: In this article, the basic magnetism in nature has been studied and the fundamental properties of magnetism have been discussed. But the authors focus on the magnetism of metamorphic and igneous rocks rather than extraterrestrial magnetism.

Abstract: Preface 1. Magnetism in nature 2. Fundamentals of magnetism 3. Terrestrial magnetic materials 4. Magnetostatic fields and energies 5. Elementary domain structure and hysteresis 6. Domain observations 7. Micromagnetic calculations 8. Single-domain thermoremanent magnetization 9. Multidomain thermoremanent magnetization 10. Viscous and thermoviscous magnetization 11. Isothermal magnetization and demagnetization 12. Pseudo-single-domain remanence 13. Crystallization remanent magnetization 14. Magnetism of igneous rocks and baked materials 15. Magnetism of sediments and sedimentary rocks 16. Magnetism of metamorphic rocks 17. Magnetism of extraterrestrial rocks References.

1,754 citations

••

629 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, various model parameters needed to describe hysteresis on the basis of the Jiles-Atherton theory can be calculated from experimental measurements of the coercivity, remanence, saturation magnetization, initial anhysteretic susceptibility, initial normal susceptibility, and maximum differential susceptibility.

Abstract: The authors describe how the various model parameters needed to describe hysteresis on the basis of the Jiles-Atherton theory can be calculated from experimental measurements of the coercivity, remanence, saturation magnetization, initial anhysteretic susceptibility, initial normal susceptibility, and maximum differential susceptibility. The determination of hysteresis parameters based on this limited set of magnetic properties is of the most practical use since these are the properties of magnetic materials that are most likely to be available. >

581 citations