About: Storage tank is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 26769 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 113873 citation(s). The topic is also known as: tank.
TL;DR: This brief addresses real-time implementation and feasibility issues of the MPC scheme by using a simplified hybrid model of the system, a periodic robust invariant set as terminal constraints, and a moving window blocking strategy.
Abstract: This brief presents a model-based predictive control (MPC) approach to building cooling systems with thermal energy storage. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. First, simplified models of chillers, cooling towers, thermal storage tanks, and buildings are developed and validated for the purpose of model-based control design. Then an MPC for the chilling system operation is proposed to optimally store the thermal energy in the tank by using predictive knowledge of building loads and weather conditions. This brief addresses real-time implementation and feasibility issues of the MPC scheme by using a simplified hybrid model of the system, a periodic robust invariant set as terminal constraints, and a moving window blocking strategy. The controller is experimentally validated at the University of California, Merced. The experiments show a reduction in the central plant electricity cost and an improvement of its efficiency.
25 Aug 2010-
Abstract: A compressed-air energy storage system according to embodiments of the present invention comprises a reversible mechanism to compress and expand air, one or more compressed air storage tanks, a control system, one or more heat exchangers, and, in certain embodiments of the invention, a motor-generator. The reversible air compressor-expander uses mechanical power to compress air (when it is acting as a compressor) and converts the energy stored in compressed air to mechanical power (when it is acting as an expander). In certain embodiments, the compressor-expander comprises one or more stages, each stage consisting of pressure vessel (the “pressure cell”) partially filled with water or other liquid. In some embodiments, the pressure vessel communicates with one or more cylinder devices to exchange air and liquid with the cylinder chamber(s) thereof. Suitable valving allows air to enter and leave the pressure cell and cylinder device, if present, under electronic control.
01 May 2009-International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Abstract: Fuel cell vehicles have a high potential to reduce both energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. However, due to the low density, hydrogen gas limits the amount of hydrogen stored on board. This restriction also prevents wide penetration of fuel cells. Hydrogen storage is the key technology towards the hydrogen society. Currently high-pressure tanks and liquid hydrogen tanks are used for road tests, but both technologies do not meet all the requirements of future fuel cell vehicles. This paper briefly explains the current status of conventional technologies (simple containment) such as high-pressure tank systems and cryogenic storage. Another method, hydrogen-absorbing alloy has been long investigated but it has several difficulties for the vehicle applications such as low temperature discharge characteristics and quick charge capability due to its reaction heat. We tested a new idea of combining metal hydride and high pressure. It will solve some difficulties and improve performance such as gravimetric density. This paper describes the latest material and system development.
Mehmet Esen1•Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2000-Solar Energy
Abstract: In this study, the cylindrical phase change storage tank linked to a solar powered heat pump system is investigated experimentally and theoretically. A simulation model defining the transient behaviour of the phase change unit was used. In the tank, the phase change material (PCM) is inside cylindrical tubes and the heat transfer fluid (HTF) flows parallel to it. The heat transfer problem of the model (treated as two-dimensional) was solved numerically by an enthalpy-based finite differences method and validated against experimental data. The experiments were performed from November to May in the heating seasons of 1992–1993 and 1993–1994 to measure both the mean temperature of water within the tank and the inlet and outlet water temperature of the tank. The experimentally obtained inlet water temperatures are also taken as inlet water temperature of the simulated model. Thus, theoretical temperature and stored heat energy distribution within the tank have been determined. Solar radiation and space heating loads for the heating seasons mentioned above are also presented.
08 May 1996-Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Abstract: This paper addresses the problem of inventory management of a refinery that imports several types of crude oil which are delivered by different vessels. This problem involves optimal operation of crude oil unloading, its transfer from storage tanks to charging tanks, and the charging schedule for each crude oil distillation unit. A mixed-integer optimization model is developed which relies on time discretization. The problem involves bilinear equations due to mixing operations. However, the linearity in the form of a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) is maintained by replacing bilinear terms with individual component flows. The LP-based branch and bound method is applied to solve the model, and several techniques, such as priority branching and bounding, and special ordered sets are implemented to reduce the computation time. This formulation and solution method was applied to an industrial-size problem involving 3 vessels, 6 storage tanks, 4 charging tanks, and 3 crude oil distillation units over 15 time intervals. The MILP model contained 105 binary variables, 991 continuous variables, and 2154 constraints and was effectively solved with the proposed solution approach.