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# Strain energy density function

About: Strain energy density function is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2763 publications have been published within this topic receiving 70765 citations. The topic is also known as: stored energy density function.

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Brown University

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the C rack-tip strain singularities with the aid of an energy line integral exhibiting path independence for all contours surrounding a crack tip in a two-dimensional deformation field of an elastic material (or elastic/plastic material treated by a deformation theory).

Abstract: C rack-tip strain singularities are investigated with the aid of an energy line integral exhibiting path independence for all contours surrounding a crack tip in a two-dimensional deformation field of an elastic material (or elastic/plastic material treated by a deformation theory). It is argued that the product of stress and strain exhibits a singularity varying inversely with distance from the tip in all materials. Corresponding near crack tip stress and strain fields are obtained for the plane straining of an incompressible elastic/plastic material hardening according to a power law. A noteworthy feature of the solution is the rapid rise of triaxial stress concentration above the flow stress with increasing values of the hardening exponent. Results are presented graphically for a range of hardening exponents, and the interpretation of the solution is aided by a discussion of analogous results in the better understood anti-plane strain case.

2,789 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed a constitutive law for the description of the (passive) mechanical response of arterial tissue, where the artery is modeled as a thick-walled nonlinearly elastic circular cylindrical tube consisting of two layers corresponding to the media and adventitia.

Abstract: In this paper we develop a new constitutive law for the description of the (passive) mechanical response of arterial tissue. The artery is modeled as a thick-walled nonlinearly elastic circular cylindrical tube consisting of two layers corresponding to the media and adventitia (the solid mechanically relevant layers in healthy tissue). Each layer is treated as a fiber-reinforced material with the fibers corresponding to the collagenous component of the material and symmetrically disposed with respect to the cylinder axis. The resulting constitutive law is orthotropic in each layer. Fiber orientations obtained from a statistical analysis of histological sections from each arterial layer are used. A specific form of the law, which requires only three material parameters for each layer, is used to study the response of an artery under combined axial extension, inflation and torsion. The characteristic and very important residual stress in an artery in vitro is accounted for by assuming that the natural (unstressed and unstrained) configuration of the material corresponds to an open sector of a tube, which is then closed by an initial bending to form a load-free, but stressed, circular cylindrical configuration prior to application of the extension, inflation and torsion. The effect of residual stress on the stress distribution through the deformed arterial wall in the physiological state is examined. The model is fitted to available data on arteries and its predictions are assessed for the considered combined loadings. It is explained how the new model is designed to avoid certain mechanical, mathematical and computational deficiencies evident in currently available phenomenological models. A critical review of these models is provided by way of background to the development of the new model.

2,617 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an equilibrium relation is developed to govern the behavior of the couples, which constrained the couple stress tensor to be symmetric, and the symmetric curvature tensor became the only properly conjugated high order strain measures in the theory to have a real contribution to the total strain energy of the system.

Abstract: The deformation behavior of materials in the micron scale has been experimentally shown to be size dependent. In the absence of stretch and dilatation gradients, the size dependence can be explained using classical couple stress theory in which the full curvature tensor is used as deformation measures in addition to the conventional strain measures. In the couple stress theory formulation, only conventional equilibrium relations of forces and moments of forces are used. The couple's association with position is arbitrary. In this paper, an additional equilibrium relation is developed to govern the behavior of the couples. The relation constrained the couple stress tensor to be symmetric, and the symmetric curvature tensor became the only properly conjugated high order strain measures in the theory to have a real contribution to the total strain energy of the system. On the basis of this modification, a linear elastic model for isotropic materials is developed. The torsion of a cylindrical bar and the pure bending of a flat plate of infinite width are analyzed to illustrate the effect of the modification.

2,270 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors generalize a previous theory to permit arbitrary deformation histories by considering two coupled thermodynamic systems: one comprising thermo- elasticity at finite strain and the other the irreversible process of dissipation and absorption of plastic work.

Abstract: : In some circumstances, elastic-plastic deformation occurs in which both components of strain are finite. Such situations fall outside the scope of classical plasticity theory which assumes either infinitesimal strains or plastic-rigid theory for large strains. The present theory modifies the kinematics to include finite elastic and plastic strain components. For situations requiring this generalization, dilatational influences are usually significant including thermo-mechanical coupling. This is introduced through the consideration of two coupled thermodynamic systems: one comprising thermo- elasticity at finite strain and the other the irreversible process of dissipation and absorption of plastic work. The present paper generalizes a previous theory to permit arbitrary deformation histories.

2,182 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a dual framework for elastic cap damage was proposed, where a strain-and a stress-based approach was employed, and a viscous regularization of strain-based, rate-independent damage models was also developed.

Abstract: Continuum elastoplastic damage models employing irreversible thermodynamics and internal state variables are developed within two alternative dual frameworks. In a strain [stress] -based formulation, damage is characterized through the effective stress [strain] concept together with the hypothesis of strain [stress] equivalence , and plastic flow is introduced by means of an additive split of the stress [strain] tensor . In a strain -based formulation we redefine the equivalent strain , usually defined as the J 2 -norm of the strain tensor, as the (undamaged) energy norm of the strain tensor. In a stress -based approach we employ the complementary energy norm of the stress tensor. These thermodynamically motivated definitions result, for ductile damage, in symmetric elastic-damage moduli. For brittle damage, a simple strain -based anisotropic characterization of damage is proposed that can predict crack development parallel to the axis of loading (splitting mode). The strain- and stress-based frameworks lead to dual but not equivalent formulations, neither physically nor computationally. A viscous regularization of strain-based, rate-independent damage models is also developed, with a structure analogous to viscoplasticity of the Perzyna type, which produces retardation of microcrack growth at higher strain rates. This regularization leads to well-posed initial value problems. Application is made to the cap model with an isotropic strain-based damage mechanism. Comparisons with experimental results and numerical simulations are undertaken in Part II of this work.

1,074 citations