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Strain hardening exponent

About: Strain hardening exponent is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12875 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 355435 citation(s).

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James R. Rice1
Abstract: : An integral is exhibited which has the same value for all paths surrounding a class of notches in two-dimensional deformation fields of linear or non-linear elastic materials. The integral may be evaluated almost by inspection for a few notch configurations. Also, for materials of the elastic- plastic type (treated through a deformation rather than incremental formulation) , with a linear response to small stresses followed by non-linear yielding, the integral may be evaluated in terms of Irwin's stress intensity factor when yielding occurs on a scale small in comparison to notch size. On the other hand, the integral may be expressed in terms of the concentrated deformation field in the vicinity of the notch tip. This implies that some information on strain concentrations is obtainable without recourse to detailed non-linear analyses. Such an approach is exploited here. Applications are made to: Approximate estimates of strain concentrations at smooth ended notch tips in elastic and elastic-plastic materials, A general solution for crack tip separation in the Barenblatt-Dugdale crack model, leading to a proof of the identity of the Griffith theory and Barenblatt cohesive theory for elastic brittle fracture and to the inclusion of strain hardening behavior in the Dugdale model for plane stress yielding, and An approximate perfectly plastic plane strain analysis, based on the slip line theory, of contained plastic deformation at a crack tip and of crack blunting.

7,005 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Dislocation theory is used to invoke a strain gradient theory of rate independent plasticity. Hardening is assumed to result from the accumulation of both randomly stored and geometrically necessary dislocation. The density of the geometrically necessary dislocations scales with the gradient of plastic strain. A deformation theory of plasticity is introduced to represent in a phenomenological manner the relative roles of strain hardening and strain gradient hardening. The theory is a non-linear generalization of Cosserat couple stress theory. Tension and torsion experiments on thin copper wires confirm the presence of strain gradient hardening. The experiments are interpreted in the light of the new theory.

3,035 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: C rack-tip strain singularities are investigated with the aid of an energy line integral exhibiting path independence for all contours surrounding a crack tip in a two-dimensional deformation field of an elastic material (or elastic/plastic material treated by a deformation theory). It is argued that the product of stress and strain exhibits a singularity varying inversely with distance from the tip in all materials. Corresponding near crack tip stress and strain fields are obtained for the plane straining of an incompressible elastic/plastic material hardening according to a power law. A noteworthy feature of the solution is the rapid rise of triaxial stress concentration above the flow stress with increasing values of the hardening exponent. Results are presented graphically for a range of hardening exponents, and the interpretation of the solution is aided by a discussion of analogous results in the better understood anti-plane strain case.

2,789 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: D istributions of stress occurring at the tip of a crack in a tension field are presented for both plane stress and plane strain. A total deformation theory of plasticity, in conjunction with two hardening stress-strain relations, is used. For applied stress sufficiently low such that the plastic zone is very small relative to the crack length, the dominant singularity can be completely determined with the aid of a path-independent line integral recently given by rice (1967). The amplitude of the tensile stress singularity ahead of the crack is found to be larger in plane strain than in plane stress.

2,580 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Sep 2014-Science
TL;DR: This work examined a five-element high-entropy alloy, CrMnFeCoNi, which forms a single-phase face-centered cubic solid solution, and found it to have exceptional damage tolerance with tensile strengths above 1 GPa and fracture toughness values exceeding 200 MPa·m1/2.
Abstract: High-entropy alloys are equiatomic, multi-element systems that can crystallize as a single phase, despite containing multiple elements with different crystal structures. A rationale for this is that the configurational entropy contribution to the total free energy in alloys with five or more major elements may stabilize the solid-solution state relative to multiphase microstructures. We examined a five-element high-entropy alloy, CrMnFeCoNi, which forms a single-phase face-centered cubic solid solution, and found it to have exceptional damage tolerance with tensile strengths above 1 GPa and fracture toughness values exceeding 200 MPa·m(1/2). Furthermore, its mechanical properties actually improve at cryogenic temperatures; we attribute this to a transition from planar-slip dislocation activity at room temperature to deformation by mechanical nanotwinning with decreasing temperature, which results in continuous steady strain hardening.

2,411 citations

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