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Strain rate

About: Strain rate is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 29156 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 667347 citation(s).

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Abstract: A stress‐strain model is developed for concrete subjected to uniaxial compressive loading and confined by transverse reinforcement. The concrete section may contain any general type of confining steel: either spiral or circular hoops; or rectangular hoops with or without supplementary cross ties. These cross ties can have either equal or unequal confining stresses along each of the transverse axes. A single equation is used for the stress‐strain equation. The model allows for cyclic loading and includes the effect of strain rate. The influence of various types of confinement is taken into account by defining an effective lateral confining stress, which is dependent on the configuration of the transverse and longitudinal reinforcement. An energy balance approach is used to predict the longitudinal compressive strain in the concrete corresponding to first fracture of the transverse reinforcement by equating the strain energy capacity of the transverse reinforcement to the strain energy stored in the concret...

5,200 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper considers fracture characteristics of OFHC copper, Armco iron and 4340 steel. The materials are subjected to torsion tests over a range of strain rates, Hopkinson bar tests over a range of temperatures, and quasi-static tensile tests with various notch geometries. A cumulative-damage fracture model is introduced which expresses the strain to fracture as a function of the strain rate, temperature and pressure. The model is evaluated by comparing computed results with cylinder impact tests and biaxial (torsion-tension) tests.

3,946 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The fracture of ductile solids has frequently been observed to result from the large growth and coalescence of microscopic voids, a process enhanced by the superposition of hydrostatic tensile stresses on a plastic deformation field. The ductile growth of voids is treated here as a problem in continuum plasticity. First, a variational principle is established to characterize the flow field in an elastically rigid and incompressible plastic material containing an internal void or voids, and subjected to a remotely uniform stress and strain rate field. Then an approximate Rayleigh-Ritz procedure is developed and applied to the enlargement of an isolated spherical void in a nonhardening material. Growth is studied in some detail for the case of a remote tensile extension field with superposed hydrostatic stresses. The volume changing contribution to void growth is found to overwhelm the shape changing part when the mean remote normal stress is large, so that growth is essentially spherical. Further, it is found that for any remote strain rate field, the void enlargement rate is amplified over the remote strain rate by a factor rising exponentially with the ratio of mean normal stress to yield stress. Some related results are discussed, including the long cylindrical void considered by F.A. McClintock (1968, J. appl. Mech . 35 , 363), and an approximate relation is given to describe growth of a spherical void in a general remote field. The results suggest a rapidly decreasing fracture ductility with increasing hydrostatic tension.

3,769 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The deformation behavior of materials in the micron scale has been experimentally shown to be size dependent. In the absence of stretch and dilatation gradients, the size dependence can be explained using classical couple stress theory in which the full curvature tensor is used as deformation measures in addition to the conventional strain measures. In the couple stress theory formulation, only conventional equilibrium relations of forces and moments of forces are used. The couple's association with position is arbitrary. In this paper, an additional equilibrium relation is developed to govern the behavior of the couples. The relation constrained the couple stress tensor to be symmetric, and the symmetric curvature tensor became the only properly conjugated high order strain measures in the theory to have a real contribution to the total strain energy of the system. On the basis of this modification, a linear elastic model for isotropic materials is developed. The torsion of a cylindrical bar and the pure bending of a flat plate of infinite width are analyzed to illustrate the effect of the modification.

2,270 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A new subgrid scale model is proposed for Large Eddy Simulations in complex geometries. This model which is based on the square of the velocity gradient tensor accounts for the effects of both the strain and the rotation rate of the smallest resolved turbulent fluctuations. Moreover it recovers the proper y 3 near-wall scaling for the eddy viscosity without requiring dynamic procedure. It is also shown from a periodic turbulent pipe flow computation that the model can handle transition.

2,243 citations

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