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Strategic planning

About: Strategic planning is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 36968 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 980141 citation(s).

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01 Jan 1984
Abstract: Part I. The Stakeholder Approach: 1. Managing in turbulent times 2. The stakeholder concept and strategic management 3. Stakeholder management: framework and philosophy Part II. Strategic Management Processes: 4. Setting strategic direction 5. Formulating strategies for stakeholders 6. Implementing and monitoring stakeholder strategies Part III. Implications for Theory and Practice: 7. Conflict at the board level 8. The functional disciplines of management 9. The role of the executive.

17,390 citations

Posted Content
Abstract: Michael Porter presents a comprehensive structural framework and analytical techniques to help a firm to analyze its industry and evolution, understand its competitors and its own position, and translate this understanding into a competitive strategy to allow the firm to compete more effectively to strengthen its market position. The introduction reviews a classic approach to strategy formulation, one that comprises a combination of ends and means (policies), factors that limit what a company can accomplish, tests of consistency, and an approach for developing competitive strategy. A competitive strategy articulates a firm's goals, how it will compete, and its policies for achieving those goals. Competitive advantage is defined in terms of cost and differentiation while linking it to profitability. Part I, "General Analytical Techniques," provides a general framework for analyzing the structure of an industry and understanding the underlying forces of competition (and hence profitability). Five competitive forces act on an industry: (1) threat of new entrants, (2) intensity of rivalry among existing firms, (3) threat of substitute products or services, (4) bargaining power of buyers, and (5) bargaining power of suppliers. Looking at industry structure provides a way to consider how value is created and divided among existing and potential industry participants. One competitive force always captures essential issues in the division of value.There are three generic competitive strategies for coping with the five competitive forces: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) focus. There are risks with each strategy. A firm without a strategy is "stuck in the middle." This framework for examining competition transcends particular industry, technology, or management theories. Building on this framework, techniques are presented for industry forecasting, analysis of competitors, predicting their behavior, and building a response profile. Essential for a competitive strategy are techniques for recognizing and accurately reading market signals. Implications of structural analysis for buyer selection and purchasing strategy are presented. Game theory provides concepts for responding to competitive moves. Using the concept of strategic groups, structural analysis can also explain differences in firm performance (profitability), provide a guide for competitive strategy, and predict industry evolution. Part II, "Generic Industry Environments," shows how firms can use the analytical framework to develop a competitive strategy in industry environments, which reflect differences in industry concentration, state of industry maturity, and exposure to international competition. These environments determine a business's competitive strategic context, available alternatives, and common strategic errors. Five generic industry environments are examined: fragmented industries (where level of industrial concentration is low), emerging industries, transition to industry maturity, declining industries, and global industries. In each, the crucial aspects of industry structure, key strategic issues, characteristic strategic alternatives (including divestment), and strategic pitfalls are identified. Part III, "Strategic Decisions," draws on the analytical framework to examine important types of strategic decisions confronting firms that compete in a single industry: vertical integration, major capacity expansion, and new business entry. Additional use of economic theory and administrative consideration of management and motivation helps a company to make key decisions, and gives insight into how competitors, customers, suppliers, and potential entrants might make them. Appendix A discusses use of techniques for portfolio analysis applied to competitor analysis. Appendix B provides approaches to conducting an industry study, including sources of field and published dat

12,520 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article synthesizes the large but diverse literature on organizational legitimacy, highlighting similarities and disparities among the leading strategic and institutional approaches. The analysis identifies three primary forms of legitimacy: pragmatic, based on audience self-interest; moral, based on normative approval: and cognitive, based on comprehensibility and taken-for-grantedness. The article then examines strategies for gaining, maintaining, and repairing legitimacy of each type, suggesting both the promises and the pitfalls of such instrumental manipulations.

11,983 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Christine Oliver1
Abstract: This article applies the convergent insights of institutional and resource dependence perspectives to the prediction of strategic responses to institutional processes. The article offers a typology of strategic responses that vary in active organizational resistance from passive conformity to proactive manipulation. Ten institutional factors are hypothesized to predict the occurrence of the alternative proposed strategies and the degree of organizational conformity or resistance to institutional pressures.

7,183 citations

01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: A Case Study of a Neighborhood Organization Initiation and Structure of the Organization Revitalization Activities and Their Support Relationship to Voluntary Associations and Networks Relationship to City Government Outcomes.
Abstract: Theory The Role of Theory in Doing Case Studies What is the Case Study Method? What is the Role of Theory in Doing Case Studies Exploratory Case Studies Case Selection and Screening: Criteria and Procedures Causal Case Studies I: Factor Theories Causal Case Studies II: Explanatory Theories Descriptive Scase Studies Conclusions Descriptive Case Studies A Case Study of a Neighborhood Organization Initiation and Structure of the Organization Revitalization Activities and Their Support Relationship to Voluntary Associations and Networks Relationship to City Government Outcomes List of Respondents and Annotated Bibliography Computer Implementation in a Local School System The Computer System in Operation Organizational Issues Explanatory Case Studies A Nutshell Example: The Effect of a Federal Award on a University Computer Science Department Essential Ingredients of Explanatory Case Studies: Three Drug Prevention Examples Simplified Case Example No. 1: "Town Meetings Galvanize Action Against Drug Dealing" Simplified Case Example No. 2: "Interagency Collaboration to Reduce BWI Incidents" Simplified Case Example No. 3: "Designated Driver Program, Delivered Through Vendors" "Transforming" a Business Firm Through Strategic Planning Company Profile and Conditions Leading to Change Strategic Plan Transforms the Business Chronology Sheriff's Combined Auto Theft Task Force The Practice and Its Funding Implementation of the Practice Outcomes to Date Chronology Cross-Case Analyses Technical Assistance for HIV/AIDS Community Planning Defining a Framework for Assessing the Effectiveness of Technical Assistance (TA) Documented Outcomes, Varieties of TA Studied and Possible Rival Explanations for the Outcomes Findings on Individual Hypotheses Regarding Reasons for Successful TA Delivery Proposal Processing by Public and Private Universities Introduction to the Study The Time Needed to Process and Submit Proposals Costs of Preparing Proposals Case Studies of Transformed Firms Why Study Transformed Firms? What is a Transformed Firm? What Kind of Transformation Did the Firms Experience? Did the Transformations Share Common Conditions Summary: General Lessons About Transformed Firms About the author

7,146 citations

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