Topic

# Stress–energy tensor

About: Stress–energy tensor is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3097 publications have been published within this topic receiving 74340 citations. The topic is also known as: energy–momentum tensor & stress-energy tensor.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the boundary stress tensor associated with a gravitating system in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space is computed, and the conformal anomalies in two and four dimensions are recovered.

Abstract: We propose a procedure for computing the boundary stress tensor associated with a gravitating system in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. Our definition is free of ambiguities encountered by previous attempts, and correctly reproduces the masses and angular momenta of various spacetimes. Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, our classical result is interpretable as the expectation value of the stress tensor in a quantum conformal field theory. We demonstrate that the conformal anomalies in two and four dimensions are recovered. The two dimensional stress tensor transforms with a Schwarzian derivative and the expected central charge. We also find a nonzero ground state energy for global AdS5, and show that it exactly matches the Casimir energy of the dual super Yang–Mills theory on S
3×R.

2,433 citations

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TL;DR: For spherically symmetric spacetimes, it is shown that the quasilocal energy has the correct Newtonian limit, and includes a negative contribution due to gravitational binding.

Abstract: The quasilocal energy of gravitational and matter fields in a spatially bounded region is obtained by employing a Hamilton-Jacobi analysis of the action functional. First, a surface stress-energy-momentum tensor is defined by the functional derivative of the action with respect to the three-metric on $^{3}$B, the history of the system's boundary. Energy surface density, momentum surface density, and spatial stress are defined by projecting the surface stress tensor normally and tangentially to a family of spacelike two-surfaces that foliate $^{3}$B. The integral of the energy surface density over such a two-surface B is the quasilocal energy associated with a spacelike three-surface \ensuremath{\Sigma} whose orthogonal intersection with $^{3}$B is the boundary B. The resulting expression for quasilocal energy is given in terms of the total mean curvature of the spatial boundary B as a surface embedded in \ensuremath{\Sigma}. The quasilocal energy is also the value of the Hamiltonian that generates unit magnitude proper-time translations on $^{3}$B in the timelike direction orthogonal to B. Conserved charges such as angular momentum are defined using the surface stress tensor and Killing vector fields on $^{3}$B. For spacetimes that are asymptotically flat in spacelike directions, the quasilocal energy and angular momentum defined here agree with the results of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner in the limit that the boundary tends to spatial infinity. For spherically symmetric spacetimes, it is shown that the quasilocal energy has the correct Newtonian limit, and includes a negative contribution due to gravitational binding.

1,871 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors review the formalism of holographic renormalization and apply it to holographic RG flows, including the derivation of the on-shell renormalized action, holographic Ward identities, anomalies and renormalisation group (RG) equations.

Abstract: We review the formalism of holographic renormalization. We start by discussing mathematical results on asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes. We then outline the general method of holographic renormalization. The method is illustrated by working all details in a simple example: a massive scalar field on anti-de Sitter spacetime. The discussion includes the derivation of the on-shell renormalized action, holographic Ward identities, anomalies and renormalization group (RG) equations, and the computation of renormalized one-, two- and four-point functions. We then discuss the application of the method to holographic RG flows. We also show that the results of the near-boundary analysis of asymptotically AdS spacetimes can be analytically continued to apply to asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes. In particular, it is shown that the Brown–York stress energy tensor of de Sitter spacetime is equal, up to a dimension-dependent sign, to the Brown–York stress energy tensor of an associated AdS spacetime.

1,673 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider the brane world with a negative tension and derive the effective gravitational equations, which reduce to the conventional Einstein equations in the low energy limit, in which all the matter forces except gravity are confined on the 3-brane in a 5-dimensional spacetime with ${Z}_{2}$ symmetry.

Abstract: We carefully investigate the gravitational equations of the brane world, in which all the matter forces except gravity are confined on the 3-brane in a 5-dimensional spacetime with ${Z}_{2}$ symmetry. We derive the effective gravitational equations on the brane, which reduce to the conventional Einstein equations in the low energy limit. From our general argument we conclude that the first Randall-Sundrum-type theory predicts that the brane with a negative tension is an antigravity world and hence should be excluded from the physical point of view. Their second-type theory where the brane has a positive tension provides the correct signature of gravity. In this latter case, if the bulk spacetime is exactly anti--de Sitter spacetime, generically the matter on the brane is required to be spatially homogeneous because of the Bianchi identities. By allowing deviations from anti--de Sitter spacetime in the bulk, the situation will be relaxed and the Bianchi identities give just the relation between the Weyl tensor and the energy momentum tensor. In the present brane world scenario, the effective Einstein equations cease to be valid during an era when the cosmological constant on the brane is not well defined, such as in the case of the matter dominated by the potential energy of the scalar field.

1,350 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the first law of thermodynamics is a scalar equation, and not the fourth component of the energy-momentum principle, and temperature and entropy also prove to be scalars.

Abstract: The considerations of the first paper of this series are modified so as to be consistent with the special theory of relativity. It is shown that the inertia of energy does not obviate the necessity for assuming the conservation of matter. Matter is to be interpreted as number of molecules, therefore, and not as inertia. Its velocity vector serves to define local proper-time axes, and the energy momentum tensor is resolved into proper-time and -space components. It is shown that the first law of thermodynamics is a scalar equation, and not the fourth component of the energy-momentum principle. Temperature and entropy also prove to be scalars. Simple relativistic generalizations of Fourier's law of heat conduction, and of the laws of viscosity are obtained from the requirements of the second law. The same considerations lead directly to the accepted relativistic form of Ohm's law.

1,316 citations