scispace - formally typeset

Topic

Stressor

About: Stressor is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5192 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 225733 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Stresser.
Papers
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Developing more efficient methods to detect frailty and measure its severity in routine clinical practice would greatly inform the appropriate selection of elderly people for invasive procedures or drug treatments and would be the basis for a shift in the care of frail elderly people towards more appropriate goal-directed care.
Abstract: Frailty is the most problematic expression of population ageing. It is a state of vulnerability to poor resolution of homoeostasis after a stressor event and is a consequence of cumulative decline in many physiological systems during a lifetime. This cumulative decline depletes homoeostatic reserves until minor stressor events trigger disproportionate changes in health status. In landmark studies, investigators have developed valid models of frailty and these models have allowed epidemiological investigations that show the association between frailty and adverse health outcomes. We need to develop more efficient methods to detect frailty and measure its severity in routine clinical practice, especially methods that are useful for primary care. Such progress would greatly inform the appropriate selection of elderly people for invasive procedures or drug treatments and would be the basis for a shift in the care of frail elderly people towards more appropriate goal-directed care.

4,062 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
04 Mar 1992-JAMA
Abstract: Objective. —This article defines stress and related concepts and reviews their historical development. The notion of a stress system as the effector of the stress syndrome is suggested, and its physiologic and pathophysiologic manifestations are described. A new perspective on human disease states associated with dysregulation of the stress system is provided. Data Sources. —Published original articles from human and animal studies and selected reviews. Literature was surveyed utilizing MEDLINE and the Index Medicus . Study Selection. —Original articles from the basic science and human literature consisted entirely of controlled studies based on verified methodologies and, with the exception of the most recent studies, replicated by more than one laboratory. Many of the basic science and clinical studies had been conducted in our own laboratories and clinical research units. Reviews cited were written by acknowledged leaders in the fields of neurobiology, endocrinology, and behavior. Data Extraction. —Independent extraction and cross-referencing by the authors. Data Synthesis. —Stress and related concepts can be traced as far back as written science and medicine. The stress system coordinates the generalized stress response, which takes place when a stressor of any kind exceeds a threshold. The main components of the stress system are the corticotropin-releasing hormone and locus ceruleus-norepinephrine/autonomic systems and their peripheral effectors, the pituitary-adrenal axis, and the limbs of the autonomic system. Activation of the stress system leads to behavioral and peripheral changes that improve the ability of the organism to adjust homeostasis and increase its chances for survival. There has been an exponential increase in knowledge regarding the interactions among the components of the stress system and between the stress system and other brain elements involved in the regulation of emotion, cognitive function, and behavior, as well as with the axes responsible for reproduction, growth, and immunity. This new knowledge has allowed association of stress system dysfunction, characterized by sustained hyperactivity and/or hypoactivity, to various pathophysiologic states that cut across the traditional boundaries of medical disciplines. These include a range of psychiatric, endocrine, and inflammatory disorders and/or susceptibility to such disorders. Conclusions. —We hope that knowledge from apparently disparate fields of science and medicine integrated into a working theoretical framework will allow generation and testing of new hypotheses on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of, and therapy for, a variety of human illnesses reflecting systematic alterations in the principal effectors of the generalized stress response. We predict that pharmacologic agents capable of altering the central apparatus that governs the stress response will be useful in the treatment of many of these illnesses. ( JAMA . 1992;267:1244-1252)

3,237 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is growing interest in moving away from unidirectional models of the stress-depression association, toward recognition of the effects of contexts and personal characteristics on the occurrence of stressors, and on the likelihood of progressive and dynamic relationships between stress and depression over time.
Abstract: Improved methods of assessment and research design have established a robust and causal association between stressful life events and major depressive episodes. The chapter reviews these developments briefly and attempts to identify gaps in the field and new directions in recent research. There are notable shortcomings in several important topics: measurement and evaluation of chronic stress and depression; exploration of potentially different processes of stress and depression associated with first-onset versus recurrent episodes; possible gender differences in exposure and reactivity to stressors; testing kindling/sensitization processes; longitudinal tests of diathesis-stress models; and understanding biological stress processes associated with naturally occurring stress and depressive outcomes. There is growing interest in moving away from unidirectional models of the stress-depression association, toward recognition of the effects of contexts and personal characteristics on the occurrence of stressors, and on the likelihood of progressive and dynamic relationships between stress and depression over time-including effects of childhood and lifetime stress exposure on later reactivity to stress.

2,167 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: From early adolescence through adulthood, women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. Many different explanations for this gender difference in depression have been offered, but none seems to fully explain it. Recent research has focused on gender differences in stress responses, and in exposure to certain stressors. I review this research and describe how gender differences in stress experiences and stress reactivity may interact to create women's greater vulnerability to depression.

2,065 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A meta-analysis showed that much of the variability in HPA activity is attributable to stressor and person features, as hormonal activity is elevated at stressor onset but reduces as time passes.
Abstract: The notion that chronic stress fosters disease by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is featured prominently in many theories. The research linking chronic stress and HPA function is contradictory, however, with some studies reporting increased activation, and others reporting the opposite. This meta-analysis showed that much of the variability is attributable to stressor and person features. Timing is an especially critical element, as hormonal activity is elevated at stressor onset but reduces as time passes. Stressors that threaten physical integrity, involve trauma, and are uncontrollable elicit a high, flat diurnal profile of cortisol secretion. Finally, HPA activity is shaped by a person's response to the situation; it increases with subjective distress but is lower in persons with posttraumatic stress disorder.

2,008 citations


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Social support

50.8K papers, 1.9M citations

89% related
Anxiety

141.1K papers, 4.7M citations

88% related
Psychosocial

66.7K papers, 2M citations

88% related
Psychological intervention

82.6K papers, 2.6M citations

87% related
Mental health

183.7K papers, 4.3M citations

85% related
Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20223
2021400
2020295
2019280
2018283
2017289