Topic

# Strouhal number

About: Strouhal number is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5203 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 139840 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Thomson number.

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Abstract: Past evidence suggests that a large-scale orderly pattern may exist in the noiseproducing region of a jet. Using several methods to visualize the flow of round subsonic jets, we watched the evolution of orderly flow with advancing Reynolds number. As the Reynolds number increases from order 102 to 103, the instability of the jet evolves from a sinusoid to a helix, and finally to a train of axisymmetric waves. At a Reynolds number around 104, the boundary layer of the jet is thin, and two kinds of axisymmetric structure can be discerned: surface ripples on the jet column, thoroughly studied by previous workers, and a more tenuous train of large-scale vortex puffs. The surface ripples scale on the boundary-layer thickness and shorten as the Reynolds number increases toward 105. The structure of the puffs, by contrast, remains much the same: they form at an average Strouhal number of about 0·3 based on frequency, exit speed, and diameter.To isolate the large-scale pattern at Reynolds numbers around 105, we destroyed the surface ripples by tripping the boundary layer inside the nozzle. We imposed a periodic surging of controllable frequency and amplitude at the jet exit, and studied the response downstream by hot-wire anemometry and schlieren photography. The forcing generates a fundamental wave, whose phase velocity accords with the linear theory of temporally growing instabilities. The fundamental grows in amplitude downstream until non-linearity generates a harmonic. The harmonic retards the growth of the fundamental, and the two attain saturation intensities roughly independent of forcing amplitude. The saturation amplitude depends on the Strouhal number of the imposed surging and reaches a maximum at a Strouhal number of 0·30. A root-mean-square sinusoidal surging only 2% of the mean exit speed brings the preferred mode to saturation four diameters downstream from the nozzle, at which point the entrained volume flow has increased 32% over the unforced case. When forced at a Strouhal number of 0·60, the jet seems to act as a compound amplifier, forming a violent 0·30 subharmonic and suffering a large increase of spreading angle. We conclude with the conjecture that the preferred mode having a Strouhal number of 0·30 is in some sense the most dispersive wave on a jet column, the wave least capable of generating a harmonic, and therefore the wave most capable of reaching a large amplitude before saturating.

2,012 citations

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Abstract: Measurements on a large circular cylinder in a pressurized wind tunnel at Reynolds numbers from 10^6 to 10^7 reveal a high Reynolds number transition in which the drag coefficient increases from its low supercritical value to a value 0.7 at R = 3.5 × 10^6 and then becomes constant. Also, for R > 3.5 × 10^6, definite vortex shedding occurs, with Strouhal number 0.27.

1,133 citations

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Abstract: Structural features resulting from the interaction of a turbulent jet issuing transversely into a uniform stream are described with the help of flow visualization and hot-wire anemometry. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios from 2 to 10 were investigated at crossflow Reynolds numbers from 3800 to 11400. In particular, the origin and formation of the vortices in the wake are described and shown to be fundamentally different from the well-known phenomenon of vortex shedding from solid bluff bodies. The flow around a transverse jet does not separate from the jet and does not shed vorticity into the wake. Instead, the wake vortices have their origins in the laminar boundary layer of the wall from which the jet issues. It is argued that the closed flow around the jet imposes an adverse pressure gradient on the wall, on the downstream lateral sides of the jet, provoking 'separation events’ in the wall boundary layer on each side. These result in eruptions of boundary-layer fluid and formation of wake vortices that are convected downstream. The measured wake Strouhal frequencies, which depend on the jet-crossflow velocity ratio, match the measured frequencies of the separation events. The wake structure is most orderly and the corresponding wake Strouhal number (0.13) is most sharply defined for velocity ratios near the value 4. Measured wake profiles show deficits of both momentum and total pressure.

1,082 citations

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Abstract: Turbulent flow over a backward-facing step is studied by direct numerical solution of the Navier–Stokes equations. The simulation was conducted at a Reynolds number of 5100 based on the step height h and inlet free-stream velocity, and an expansion ratio of 1.20. Temporal behaviour of spanwise-averaged pressure fluctuation contours and reattachment length show evidence of an approximate periodic behaviour of the free shear layer with a Strouhal number of 0.06. The instantaneous velocity fields indicate that the reattachment location varies in the spanwise direction, and oscillates about a mean value of 6.28h. Statistical results show excellent agreement with experimental data by Jovic & Driver (1994). Of interest are two observations not previously reported for the backward-facing step flow: (a) at the relatively low Reynolds number considered, large negative skin friction is seen in the recirculation region; the peak |Cf| is about 2.5 times the value measured in experiments at high Reynolds numbers; (b) the velocity profiles in the recovery region fall below the universal log-law. The deviation of the velocity profile from the log-law indicates that the turbulent boundary layer is not fully recovered at 20 step heights behind the separation.The budgets of all Reynolds stress components have been computed. The turbulent kinetic energy budget in the recirculation region is similar to that of a turbulent mixing layer. The turbulent transport term makes a significant contribution to the budget and the peak dissipation is about 60% of the peak production. The velocity–pressure gradient correlation and viscous diffusion are negligible in the shear layer, but both are significant in the near-wall region. This trend is seen throughout the recirculation and reattachment region. In the recovery region, the budgets show that effects of the free shear layer are still present.

1,013 citations

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Abstract: Two fundamental characteristics of the low-Reynolds-number cylinder wake, which have involved considerable debate, are first the existence of discontinuities in the Strouhal-Reynolds number relationship, and secondly the phenomenon of oblique vortex shedding. The present paper shows that both of these characteristics of the wake are directly related to each other, and that both are influenced by the boundary conditions at the ends of the cylinder, even for spans of hundreds of diameters in length. It is found that a Strouhal discontinuity exists, which is not due to any of the previously proposed mechanisms, but instead is caused by a transition from one oblique shedding mode to another oblique mode. This transition is explained by a change from one mode where the central flow over the span matches the end boundary conditions to one where the central flow is unable to match the end conditions. In the latter case, quasi-periodic spectra of the velocity fluctuations appear; these are due to the presence of spanwise cells of different frequency. During periods when vortices in neighbouring cells move out of phase with each other, ‘vortex dislocations’ are observed, and are associated with rather complex vortex linking between the cells. However, by manipulating the end boundary conditions, parallel shedding can be induced, which then results in a completely continuous Strouhal curve. It is also universal in the sense that the oblique-shedding Strouhal data (S_θ) can be collapsed onto the parallel-shedding Strouhal curve (S_0) by the transformation, S_0 = S_θ/cosθ, where θ is the angle of oblique shedding. Close agreement between measurements in two distinctly different facilities confirms the continuous and universal nature of this Strouhal curve. It is believed that the case of parallel shedding represents truly two-dimensional shedding, and a comparison of Strouhal frequency data is made with several two-dimensional numerical simulations, yielding a large disparity which is not clearly understood. The oblique and parallel modes of vortex shedding are both intrinsic to the flow over a cylinder, and are simply solutions to different problems, because the boundary conditions are different in each case.

905 citations