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Substrate (biology)

About: Substrate (biology) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1641 publications have been published within this topic receiving 14593 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Hard substrate communities are formed by organisms with a variety of strategies for adhering to and/or excavating the substrates they inhabit as discussed by the authors, and they are excellent systems with which to study community evolution over hundreds of millions of years.

559 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: No distinct differences in enzyme activlty profiles were found between isolates collected from vanous types of particles versus those from the surround~ng water, suggesting specialization for dlfferent types of polyrnenc substrates in d~fferent species.
Abstract: Microbial utlllzatlon of polymenc and particulate organic matter in aquatlc environments depends on the activltles of hydrolytic ectoenzymes present in the periplasm or bound to bactenal sur faces Numerous studles have quantified this activity and shown that it is an ubiquitous phenotype of bactenal populatlons In oceans and lakes However llttle IS known about the distribution of this activity among the dlfferent species that constitute the bacterial community In natural assemblages We examined whether manne bactena isolated from several types of particles and from the surrounding seawater exhibit dlfferent patterns of hydrolytic enzyme activities We screened 44 manne isolates for the presence of enzymatic activity measured as the hydrolysis of fluorogenic substrates Isolates were obtained from Southern California Bight (USA) seawater after size fractionation to concentrate unattached or particle-attached bactena Isolates were also obtained from larvacean houses and aggregates produced in laboratory nlicrocosms whlch had been ennched with nutnents to create phytoplankton blooms The aclvlties of the following enzymes were assayed protease, P-glucos~dase, a-glucosidase alkahne phosphatase lipase and chitinase Cell-speciflc activities of all enzymes vaned over a broad range (4 to 3810 amol cell-' h-' for protease 0 to 35 am01 cell-' h-' for P-glucosldase 0 to 8 am01 cell-' h ' for a-glucosidase 0 7 to 410 amol cell-' h-' for alkahne phosphatase 0 2 to 584 am01 cell-' h ' for lipase 0 to 559 am01 cell ' h I for chitinase) suggesting shifts in the dominant species of bactena could strongly influence the rates and patterns of polymer and particle hydrolysis in seawater Some isolates had a single dominant activlty whlch vaned among isolates This suggests specialization for dlfferent types of polyrnenc substrates in d~fferent species However no distinct differences In enzyme activlty profiles were found between isolates collected from vanous types of particles versus those from the surround~ng water

378 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent studies on mixed substrate utilization in both batch and continuous cultures have thrown light on the strategies of the control mechanisms that, in microbes, govern the utilization of the various substrates and indicated the possible significance of mixed substrates in microbial competition in nutrient-limited natural ecosystems.
Abstract: In natural and man-made environments microorganisms often grow in the presence of a diversity of functionally similar substrates. The pattern of utilization of these mixed substrates is generally dependent upon their concentration. When substrates are present in high (not growth-limiting) concentrations, sequential utilization and diauxic growth is often observed and the substrate that supports the highest growth rate is utilized preferentially from the mixture. When the substrate concentrations are growth-limiting, simultaneous utilization of the various compounds present in the mixture appears to be the general response. Recent studies on mixed substrate utilization in both batch and continuous cultures have thrown light on the strategies of the control mechanisms that, in microbes, govern the utilization of the various substrates. But perhaps more importantly these studies have indicated the possible significance of mixed substrate utilization in microbial competition in nutrient-limited natural ecosystems.

293 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
202172
202084
201960
201899
201767