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Subsurface flow

About: Subsurface flow is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4194 publications have been published within this topic receiving 126753 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1984-Ecology
TL;DR: Nutrient removals in the riparian forest are thought to be of ecological significance to receiving waters and indicate that coupling natural systems and managed habitats within a watershed may reduce diffuse-source pollution.
Abstract: Nutrient (C, N, and P) concentration changes were measured in surface runoff and shallow groundwater as they moved through a small agricultural (cropland) watershed located in Maryland. During the study period (March 1981 to March 1982), dramatic changes in water-borne nutrient loads occurred in the riparian forest of the watershed. From surface runoff waters that had transited : 50 m of riparian forest, an estimated 4.1 Mg of particulates, 1I kg of particulate organic-N, 0.83 kg of ammonium-N, 2.7 kg of nitrate-N and 3.0 kg of total particulate-P per ha of riparian forest were removed during the study year. In addition, an estimated removal of 45 kg ha- yr-t of nitrate- N occurred in subsurface flow as it moved through the riparian zone. Nutrient uptake rates for the cropland and riparian forest were estimated. These systems were then compared with respect to their pathways of nutrient flow and ability to retain nutrients. The cropland appeared to retain fewer nutrients than the riparian forest and is thought to incur the majority of its nutrient losses in harvested crop. The dominant pathway of total-N loss from the riparian forest seemed to be subsurface flux. Total phosphorus loss from the riparian forest appeared almost evenly divided between surface and subsurface losses. Nutrient removals in the riparian forest are thought to be of ecological significance to receiving waters and indicate that coupling natural systems and managed habitats within a watershed may reduce diffuse-source pollution.

1,562 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined some of the problems of deriving flow pathways from raster digital terrain data in the context of hydrological predictions using TOPMODEL and proposed a strategy for the case where downslope subsurface flow pathways may deviate from those indicated by the surface topography.
Abstract: The accuracy of the predictions of distributed hydrological models must depend in part on the proper specification of flow pathways. This paper examines some of the problems of deriving flow pathways from raster digital terrain data in the context of hydrological predictions using TOPMODEL. Distributed moisture status is predicted in TOPMODEL on the basis of spatial indices that depend on flow path definition. The sensitivity of this index to flow path algorithm and grid size is examined for the case where the surface topography is a good indicator of local hydraulic gradients. A strategy for the case where downslope subsurface flow pathways may deviate from those indicated by the surface topography is described with an example application.

1,461 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Water repellency (hydrophobicity) of soils is a property with major repercussions for plant growth, surface and subsurface hydrology, and for soil erosion as discussed by the authors.

1,415 citations

Book
01 Dec 1992
TL;DR: Stohastic description temporally variable subsurface flow spatially variable sub-surface flow transport processes in heterogeneous media geostatistical methods and parameter estimation as mentioned in this paper, and
Abstract: Stohastic description temporally variable subsurface flow spatially variable subsurface flow transport processes in heterogeneous media geostatistical methods and parameter estimation.

1,382 citations

Book
01 Jan 1958
TL;DR: In this article, the basic processes of hydrology are stressed in detail and include weather (solar and earth radiation, temperature, humidity, wind), and precipitation (measurement, interpretation of data, variations in precipitation, snowpak and snowfall).
Abstract: The basic processes of hydrology are stressed in this the second edition which reporesents and extensive revision of the earlier text. The importance of the digital computer as a tool for hydrologic analysis is recognized, but older methods are also discussed. The concept of the hydrologic cycle is described. The factors which affect a regions hydrology are covered in detail and include weather (solar and earth radiation, temperature, humidity, wind), and precipitation (measurement, interpretation of data, variations in precipitation, snowpak and snowfall). Streamflow (water stage, discharge, interpretation of streamflow data) aspects are detailed, and features of subsurface water (occurrence, moisture in the Vadose zone, moisture in the phreatic zone, potential of a groundwater reservoir) are described. Streamflow hydrographs (characteristics, hydrograph synthesis) are discussed, and the relations between precipitation and runoff (runoff phenonomena, estimating volume of storm runoff, estimating snowmelt runoff, seasonal and annual runoff relations) are explored. Details of streamflow routing are given and computer simulation of streamflow is examined. The techniques are described for defining probability from a given set of data and with special methods employed for determining the spillway-design flood for major dams. Special methods for probability analysis using synthetically generated data are also discussed in the chapter on stochastic hydrology. Sedimentation and the monphology of river basins are covered in detail.

1,287 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202394
2022150
2021136
2020168
2019156
2018162