About: Sulfation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3950 publications have been published within this topic receiving 144828 citations. The topic is also known as: sulphation & sulfonation.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In recognition of its generalized pleiotypic actions, sulfation factor was renamed somatomedin (mediator of the effects of somatotropin) and was included in the emerging classification of broad spectrum growth factors along with platelet derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factors, and epidermal growth factor.
Abstract: I. Introduction THE insulin-like growth factors were discovered on the basis of their ability to stimulate cartilage sulfation and to replace the “sulfation factor activity” of GH, as determined using an in vivo assay, in an in vitro test system (1). The biological significance of this finding was quickly expanded beyond the study of cartilage sulfation to include stimulation of DNA synthesis (2), proteoglycan synthesis (3), glycosaminoglycan synthesis (4), and protein synthesis (5). Most of these studies used tissue preparations such as isolated diaphragm, cartilage, or epididymal fat pads to study biologicalactivity. In recognition of its generalized pleiotypic actions, in the early 1970's sulfation factor was renamed somatomedin (mediator of the effects of somatotropin) and was included in the emerging classification of broad spectrum growth factors along with platelet derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor (6). During the period in which the biological actions of ...
TL;DR: N, sulfation, L-iduronic acid, glycosam inoglycan-protei n in teractions, extracellular matrix.
Abstract: n, sulfation, L-iduronic acid, glycosam inoglycan-protei n in teractions, extracellular matrix.
TL;DR: This review focuses on aspects of heparin structure and conformation, which are important for its interactions with proteins, and describes the interaction ofheparin and heparan sulfate with selected families of heParin-binding proteins.
Abstract: Heparin, a sulfated polysaccharide belonging to the family of glycosaminoglycans, has numerous important biological activities, associated with its interaction with diverse proteins. Heparin is widely used as an anticoagulant drug based on its ability to accelerate the rate at which antithrombin inhibits serine proteases in the blood coagulation cascade. Heparin and the structurally related heparan sulfate are complex linear polymers comprised of a mixture of chains of different length, having variable sequences. Heparan sulfate is ubiquitously distributed on the surfaces of animal cells and in the extracellular matrix. It also mediates various physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Difficulties in evaluating the role of heparin and heparan sulfate in vivo may be partly ascribed to ignorance of the detailed structure and sequence of these polysaccharides. In addition, the understanding of carbohydrate-protein interactions has lagged behind that of the more thoroughly studied protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. The recent extensive studies on the structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic aspects of the protein binding of heparin and heparan sulfate have led to an improved understanding of heparin-protein interactions. A high degree of specificity could be identified in many of these interactions. An understanding of these interactions at the molecular level is of fundamental importance in the design of new highly specific therapeutic agents. This review focuses on aspects of heparin structure and conformation, which are important for its interactions with proteins. It also describes the interaction of heparin and heparan sulfate with selected families of heparin-binding proteins.
TL;DR: It is shown that heparan sulfate modified by a subset of the multiple D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms provides sites for the binding of a third viral glycoprotein, gD, and for initiation of HSV-1 entry.
Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) binds to cells through interactions of viral glycoproteins gB and gC with heparan sulfate chains on cell surface proteoglycans. This binding is not sufficient for viral entry, which requires fusion between the viral envelope and cell membrane. Here, we show that heparan sulfate modified by a subset of the multiple D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms provides sites for the binding of a third viral glycoprotein, gD, and for initiation of HSV-1 entry. We conclude that susceptibility of cells to HSV-1 entry depends on (1) presence of heparan sulfate chains to which virus can bind and (2) 3-O-sulfation of specific glucosamine residues in heparan sulfate to generate gD-binding sites or the expression of other previously identified gD-binding receptors.
TL;DR: It is suggested that heparan sulfate released either directly by cells or through proteolytic degradation of their extracellular milieu may act as carrier for bFGF and facilitate the diffusion of locally produced growth factor by competing with its binding to surrounding matrix structures.
Abstract: Cultured bovine capillary endothelial (BCE) cells were found to synthesize and secrete high molecular mass heparan sulfate proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, which bound basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The secreted heparan sulfate molecules were purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography, followed by Sepharose 4B chromatography and affinity chromatography on immobilized bFGF. Most of the heparinase-sensitive sulfated molecules secreted into the medium by BCE cells bound to immobilized bFGF at low salt concentrations. However, elution from bFGF with increasing salt concentrations demonstrated varying affinities for bFGF among the secreted heparan sulfate molecules, with part of the heparan sulfate requiring NaCl concentrations between 1.0 and 1.5 M for elution. Cell extracts prepared from BCE cells also contained a bFGF-binding heparan sulfate proteoglycan, which could be released from the intact cells by a short proteinase treatment. The purified bFGF-binding heparan sulfate competed with 125I-bFGF for binding to low-affinity binding sites but not to high-affinity sites on the cells. Heparan sulfate did not interfere with bFGF stimulation of plasminogen activator activity in BCE cells in agreement with its lack of effect on binding of 125I-bFGF to high-affinity sites. Soluble bFGF was readily degraded by plasmin, whereas bFGF bound to heparan sulfate was protected from proteolytic degradation. Treatment of the heparan sulfate with heparinase before addition of plasmin abolished the protection and resulted in degradation of bFGF by the added proteinase. The results suggest that heparan sulfate released either directly by cells or through proteolytic degradation of their extracellular milieu may act as carrier for bFGF and facilitate the diffusion of locally produced growth factor by competing with its binding to surrounding matrix structures. Simultaneously, the secreted heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans protect the growth factor from proteolytic degradation by extracellular proteinases, which are abundant at sites of neovascularization or cell invasion.