About: Superalloy is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 15591 publications have been published within this topic receiving 244353 citations. The topic is also known as: high-performance alloy & high-temperature alloy.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, two refractory high entropy alloys with compositions near Nb25Mo25Ta25W25 and V20Nb20Mo20Ta20W20, were produced by vacuum arc-melting.
Abstract: Two refractory high entropy alloys with compositions near Nb25Mo25Ta25W25 and V20Nb20Mo20Ta20W20, were produced by vacuum arc-melting. Despite containing many constituents, both alloys had a single-phase body-centered cubic (BCC) structure that remained not only stable after exposure to 1400 °C, but also disordered, as confirmed by the absence of superlattice reflections in neutron diffraction data. Compressive flow properties and microstructure development of these alloys were determined from room temperature up to 1600 °C. Limited compressive plasticity and quasi-cleavage fracture at room temperature suggest that the ductile-to-brittle transition for these alloys occurs above room temperature. At 600 °C and above, both alloys showed extensive compressive plastic strain. The yield stress of both alloys dropped by 30–40% between room temperature and 600 °C, but was relatively insensitive to temperature above 600 °C, comparing favorably with conventional superalloys.
TL;DR: The chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics of nickel-based superalloys are reviewed with emphasis on the use of this class of materials within turbine engines as mentioned in this paper, and the role of major and minor alloying additions in multicomponent commercial cast and wrought super-alloys is discussed.
Abstract: The chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics of nickel-based superalloys are reviewed with emphasis on the use of this class of materials within turbine engines. The role of major and minor alloying additions in multicomponent commercial cast and wrought superalloys is discussed. Microstructural stability and phases observed during processing and in subsequent elevated-temperature service are summarized. Processing paths and recent advances in processing are addressed. Mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms are reviewed, including tensile properties, creep, fatigue, and cyclic crack growth. I. Introduction N ICKEL-BASED superalloys are an unusual class of metallic materials with an exceptional combination of hightemperature strength, toughness, and resistance to degradation in corrosive or oxidizing environments. These materials are widely used in aircraft and power-generation turbines, rocket engines, and other challenging environments, including nuclear power and chemical processing plants. Intensive alloy and process development activities during the past few decades have resulted in alloys that can tolerate average temperatures of 1050 ◦ C with occasional excursions (or local hot spots near airfoil tips) to temperatures as high as 1200 ◦ C, 1 which is approximately 90% of the melting point of the material. The underlying aspects of microstructure and composition that result in these exceptional properties are briefly reviewed here. Major classes of superalloys that are utilized in gas-turbine engines and the corresponding processes for their production are outlined along with characteristic mechanical and physical properties.
01 Apr 1988
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a summary of the most useful information required to understand titanium and its alloys and present a review of the significant features of the metallurgy and application of titanium and alloys.
Abstract: Designed to support the need of engineering, management, and other professionals for information on titanium by providing an overview of the major topics, this book provides a concise summary of the most useful information required to understand titanium and its alloys The author provides a review of the significant features of the metallurgy and application of titanium and its alloys All technical aspects of the use of titanium are covered, with sufficient metals property data for most users Because of its unique density, corrosion resistance, and relative strength advantages over competing materials such as aluminum, steels, and superalloys, titanium has found a niche in many industries Much of this use has occurred through military research, and subsequent applications in aircraft, of gas turbine engines, although more recent use features replacement joints, golf clubs, and bicycles Contents include: A primer on titanium and its alloys, Introduction to selection of titanium alloys, Understanding titanium's metallurgy and mill products, Forging and forming, Castings, Powder metallurgy, Heat treating, Joining technology and practice, Machining, Cleaning and finishing, Structure/processing/property relationships, Corrosion resistance, Advanced alloys and future directions, Appendices: Summary table of titanium alloys, Titanium alloy datasheets, Cross-reference to titanium alloys, Listing of selected specification and standardization organizations, Selected manufacturers, suppliers, services, Corrosion data, Machining data
TL;DR: The approach to metal-based additive manufacturing is applicable to a wide range of alloys and can be implemented using a range of additive machines, and provides a foundation for broad industrial applicability, including where electron-beam melting or directed-energy-deposition techniques are used instead of selective laser melting.
Abstract: Metal-based additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a potentially disruptive technology across multiple industries, including the aerospace, biomedical and automotive industries. Building up metal components layer by layer increases design freedom and manufacturing flexibility, thereby enabling complex geometries, increased product customization and shorter time to market, while eliminating traditional economy-of-scale constraints. However, currently only a few alloys, the most relevant being AlSi10Mg, TiAl6V4, CoCr and Inconel 718, can be reliably printed; the vast majority of the more than 5,500 alloys in use today cannot be additively manufactured because the melting and solidification dynamics during the printing process lead to intolerable microstructures with large columnar grains and periodic cracks. Here we demonstrate that these issues can be resolved by introducing nanoparticles of nucleants that control solidification during additive manufacturing. We selected the nucleants on the basis of crystallographic information and assembled them onto 7075 and 6061 series aluminium alloy powders. After functionalization with the nucleants, we found that these high-strength aluminium alloys, which were previously incompatible with additive manufacturing, could be processed successfully using selective laser melting. Crack-free, equiaxed (that is, with grains roughly equal in length, width and height), fine-grained microstructures were achieved, resulting in material strengths comparable to that of wrought material. Our approach to metal-based additive manufacturing is applicable to a wide range of alloys and can be implemented using a range of additive machines. It thus provides a foundation for broad industrial applicability, including where electron-beam melting or directed-energy-deposition techniques are used instead of selective laser melting, and will enable additive manufacturing of other alloy systems, such as non-weldable nickel superalloys and intermetallics. Furthermore, this technology could be used in conventional processing such as in joining, casting and injection moulding, in which solidification cracking and hot tearing are also common issues.
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative study of selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) is presented for the fabrication of complex, multi-functional metal or alloy monoliths by CAD-directed, selective melting of precursor powder beds.
Abstract: Selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are relatively new rapid, additive manufacturing technologies which can allow for the fabrication of complex, multi-functional metal or alloy monoliths by CAD-directed, selective melting of precursor powder beds. By altering the beam parameters and scan strategies, new and unusual, even non-equilibrium microstructures can be produced; including controlled microstructural architectures which ideally extend the contemporary materials science and engineering paradigm relating structure-properties-processing-performance. In this study, comparative examples for SLM and EBM fabricated components from pre-alloyed, atomized precursor powders are presented. These include Cu, Ti-6Al-4V, alloy 625 (a Ni-base superalloy), a Co-base superalloy, and 17-4 PH stainless steel. These systems are characterized by optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction.
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