About: Superparamagnetism is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 10264 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 296477 citation(s).
09 Jan 2008-Journal of the American Chemical Society
TL;DR: By using the unique core-shell microspheres with accessible large pores and excellent magnetic property, a fast removal of microcystins with high efficiency can be achieved.
Abstract: Superparamagnetic microspheres with an Fe3O4@SiO2 core and a perpendicularly aligned mesoporous SiO2 shell were synthesized through a surfactant-templating sol−gel approach. The microspheres possess high magnetization (53.3 emu/g), high surface area (365 m2/g), large pore volume (0.29 cm3/g), and uniform mesopore (2.3 nm). By using the unique core−shell microspheres with accessible large pores and excellent magnetic property, a fast removal of microcystins with high efficiency (>95%) can be achieved.
19 Jun 2003-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that magnetic exchange coupling induced at the interface between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems can provide an extra source of anisotropy, leading to magnetization stability.
Abstract: Interest in magnetic nanoparticles has increased in the past few years by virtue of their potential for applications in fields such as ultrahigh-density recording and medicine. Most applications rely on the magnetic order of the nanoparticles being stable with time. However, with decreasing particle size the magnetic anisotropy energy per particle responsible for holding the magnetic moment along certain directions becomes comparable to the thermal energy. When this happens, the thermal fluctuations induce random flipping of the magnetic moment with time, and the nanoparticles lose their stable magnetic order and become superparamagnetic. Thus, the demand for further miniaturization comes into conflict with the superparamagnetism caused by the reduction of the anisotropy energy per particle: this constitutes the so-called 'superparamagnetic limit' in recording media. Here we show that magnetic exchange coupling induced at the interface between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems can provide an extra source of anisotropy, leading to magnetization stability. We demonstrate this principle for ferromagnetic cobalt nanoparticles of about 4 nm in diameter that are embedded in either a paramagnetic or an antiferromagnetic matrix. Whereas the cobalt cores lose their magnetic moment at 10 K in the first system, they remain ferromagnetic up to about 290 K in the second. This behaviour is ascribed to the specific way ferromagnetic nanoparticles couple to an antiferromagnetic matrix.
19 Aug 2003-Journal of Applied Physics
Abstract: We present a detailed study of static and dynamic magnetic behavior of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with average particle sizes 〈d〉 ranging from 5 to 150 nm. Bulk-like properties such as saturation magnetization, hyperfine parameters, coercive field, and Verwey transition are observed in 150 nm particles. For decreasing particle size, the Verwey temperature, TV, shifts down to ∼20 K for 〈d〉=50 nm and is no longer observable for smaller particles. The smallest particles (〈d〉=5 nm) display superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, with transition to a blocked state at TB∼45 K, which depends on the applied field. The existence of surface spin disorder can be inferred from the decrease of saturation magnetization MS at low temperatures, as the average particle size is reduced. This disordered surface did not show effects of exchange coupling to the particle core, as observed from hysteresis loops after field cooling in a 7 T magnetic field. For particles with 〈d〉=5 nm, dynamic ac susceptibility measurements show...
05 Mar 2002-Journal of Physics D
Abstract: Some of the most relevant finite-size and surface effects in the magnetic and transport properties of magnetic fine particles and granular solids are reviewed. The stability of the particle magnetization, superparamagnetic regime and the magnetic relaxation are discussed. New phenomena appearing due to interparticle interactions, such as the collective state and non-equilibrium dynamics, are presented. Surface anisotropy and disorder, spin-wave excitations, as well as the enhancements of the coercive field and particle magnetization are also reviewed. The competition of surface and finite-size effects to settle the magnetic behaviour is addressed. Finally, two of the most relevant phenomena in the transport properties of granular solids are summarized namely, giant magnetoresistance in granular heterogeneous alloys and Coulomb gap in insulating granular solids.
27 Sep 2006-Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter
Abstract: Loss processes in magnetic nanoparticles are discussed with respect to optimization of the specific loss power (SLP) for application in tumour hyperthermia. Several types of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles representative for different preparation methods (wet chemical precipitation, grinding, bacterial synthesis, magnetic size fractionation) are the subject of a comparative study of structural and magnetic properties. Since the specific loss power useful for hyperthermia is restricted by serious limitations of the alternating field amplitude and frequency, the effects of the latter are investigated experimentally in detail. The dependence of the SLP on the mean particle size is studied over a broad size range from superparamagnetic up to multidomain particles, and guidelines for achieving large SLP under the constraints valid for the field parameters are derived. Particles with the mean size of 18 nm having a narrow size distribution proved particularly useful. In particular, very high heating power may be delivered by bacterial magnetosomes, the best sample of which showed nearly 1 kW g −1 at 410 kHz and 10 kA m −1 . This value may even be exceeded by metallic magnetic particles, as indicated by measurements on cobalt particles.