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About: Superplasticity is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8369 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 155887 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Akihisa Inoue1
Abstract: Bulk metallic materials have ordinarily been produced by melting and solidification processes for the last several thousand years. However, metallic liquid is unstable at temperatures below the melting temperature and solidifies immediately into crystalline phases. Consequently, all bulk engineering alloys are composed of a crystalline structure. Recently, this common concept was exploded by the findings of the stabilization phenomenon of the supercooled liquid for a number of alloys in the Mg-, lanthanide-, Zr-, Ti-, Fe-, Co-, Pd-Cu- and Ni-based systems. The alloys with the stabilized supercooled liquid state have three features in their alloy components, i.e. multicomponent systems, significant atomic size ratios above 12%, and negative heats of mixing. The stabilization mechanism has also been investigated from experimental data of structure analyses and fundamental physical properties. The stabilization has enabled the pro- duction of bulk amorphous alloys in the thickness range of 1-100 mm by using various casting processes. Bulk amorphous Zr-based alloys exhibit high mechanical strength, high fracture toughness and good cor- rosion resistance and have been used for sporting goods materials. The stabilization also leads to the appearance of a large supercooled liquid region before crystallization and enables high-strain rate super- plasticity through Newtonian flow. The new Fe- and Co-based amorphous alloys exhibit a large super- cooled liquid region and good soft magnetic properties which are characterized by low coercive force and high permeability. Furthermore, homogeneous dispersion of nanoscale particles into Zr-based bulk amor- phous alloys was found to cause an improvement of tensile strength without detriment to good ductility. The discovery of the stabilization phenomenon, followed by the clarification of the stabilization criteria of the supercooled liquid, will promise the future definite development of bulk amorphous alloys as new basic science and engineering materials. # 2000 Acta Metallurgica Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

4,806 citations

01 Jan 1949
Abstract: General physical and chemical constants X-ray analysis of metallic material Crystallography Crystal chemistry Metallurgically important minerals Thermochemical data Physical properties of molton salts Metallography Equilibrium diagrams Gas-metal systems Diffusion in metals General physical properties Elastic properties, damping capacity and shape memory alloys Temperature measurement and thermoelectric properties Radiating properties of metals Electron emission Electrical properties Magnetic materials and their properties Mechanical testing Mechanical properties of metals and alloys Sintered materials Lubricants Friction and wear Casting alloys and foundry data Engineering ceramics and refractory materials Fuels Heat treatment Metal cutting and forming Corrosion Electroplating and metal finishing Welding Soldering and brazing Vapour deposited coatings and thermal spraying Superplasticity Metal-matrix composites Non-conventional and emerging metallic minerals modelling and simulation supporting technologies for the processing of metals and alloys.

3,590 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Nanocrystalline metals and alloys, with average and range of grain sizes typically smaller than 100 nm, have been the subject of considerable research in recent years. Such interest has been spurred by progress in the processing of materials and by advances in computational materials science. It has also been kindled by the recognition that these materials possess some appealing mechanical properties, such as high strength, increased resistance to tribological and environmentally-assisted damage, increasing strength and/or ductility with increasing strain rate, and potential for enhanced superplastic deformation at lower temperatures and faster strain rates. From a scientific standpoint, advances in nanomechanical probes capable of measuring forces and displacements at resolutions of fractions of a picoNewton and nanometer, respectively, and developments in structural characterization have provided unprecedented opportunities to probe the mechanisms underlying mechanical response. In this paper, we present an overview of the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline metals and alloys with the objective of assessing recent advances in the experimental and computational studies of deformation, damage evolution, fracture and fatigue, and highlighting opportunities for further research.

1,707 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Polycrystalline matter can deform to large strains by grain-boundary sliding with diffusional accommodation. A new mechanism for this sort of deformation is described and modelled. It differs fundamentally from Nabarro-Herring and Coble creep in a topological sense: grains switch their neighbors and do not elongate significantly. A constitutive equation describing the mechanism is derived from the model. The strain-rate may be diffusion controlled, in which case the constitutive equation resembles the Nabarro-Herring-Coble equation but predicts strain-rates which are roughly an order of magnitude faster. Or it may be controlled by an interface reaction—roughly speaking, by the restricted ability of a boundary to act as a sink or source for point defects, or by its restricted ability to slide. The flow behavior of superplastic alloys can be explained as the superposition of this mechanism and ordinary power-law creep (“dislocation creep”). The combined mechanisms appear to be capable of explaining not only the observed relation between strain-rate and stress, but most of the microstructural and topological features of superplastic flow as well.

1,255 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Koichi Niihara1
Abstract: Ceramic nanocomposites can be divided into three categories: intergranular nanocomposite, intergranular nanocomposite and nano/nano composite. The intra- and intergranular nanocomposites were found to show the two to five times higher toughness and strength at room temperature than those of monolithic materials. The hardness, toughness, strength and fracture resistance for creep and fatigue at high temperatures as well as the thermal shock fracture resistance were also strongly improved for these composites. On the other hand, the new function such as machinability and superplasticity was observed for the nano/nano composites. The fabrication processes of these nanocomposites by sintering methods, micro and nanostructure observations, improvements of mechanical properties were reviewed and the roles of the nano-size dispersoids were discussed. Finally the new approach on structural materials design will be given.

1,161 citations

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