Topic

# Surface energy

About: Surface energy is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 17879 publications have been published within this topic receiving 509658 citations. The topic is also known as: Surface energy.

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the thickness of the interface increases with increasing temperature and becomes infinite at the critical temperature Tc, and that at a temperature T just below Tc the interfacial free energy σ is proportional to (T c −T) 3 2.

Abstract: It is shown that the free energy of a volume V of an isotropic system of nonuniform composition or density is given by : NV∫V [f 0(c)+κ(▿c)2]dV, where NV is the number of molecules per unit volume, ▿c the composition or density gradient, f 0 the free energy per molecule of a homogeneous system, and κ a parameter which, in general, may be dependent on c and temperature, but for a regular solution is a constant which can be evaluated. This expression is used to determine the properties of a flat interface between two coexisting phases. In particular, we find that the thickness of the interface increases with increasing temperature and becomes infinite at the critical temperature Tc , and that at a temperature T just below Tc the interfacial free energy σ is proportional to (T c −T) 3 2 . The predicted interfacial free energy and its temperature dependence are found to be in agreement with existing experimental data. The possibility of using optical measurements of the interface thickness to provide an additional check of our treatment is briefly discussed.

8,720 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a method for measuring the surface energy of solids and for resolving surface energy into contributions from dispersion and dipole-hydrogen bonding forces has been developed based on the measurement of contact angles with water and methylene iodide.

Abstract: A method for measuring the surface energy of solids and for resolving the surface energy into contributions from dispersion and dipole-hydrogen bonding forces has been developed. It is based on the measurement of contact angles with water and methylene iodide. Good agreement has been obtained with the more laborious γc method. Evidence for a finite value of liquid-solid interfacial tension at zero contact angle is presented. The method is especially applicable to the surface characterization of polymers.

7,695 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of surface energy on the contact between elastic solids is discussed and an analytical model for its effect upon the contact size and the force of adhesion between two lightly loaded spherical solid surfaces is presented.

Abstract: This paper discusses the influence of surface energy on the contact between elastic solids. Equations are derived for its effect upon the contact size and the force of adhesion between two lightly loaded spherical solid surfaces. The theory is supported by experiments carried out on the contact of rubber and gelatine spheres.

6,981 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors derived an expression for the total energy of a metal using the embedding energy from which they obtained several ground-state properties, such as the lattice constant, elastic constants, sublimation energy, and vacancy-formation energy.

Abstract: We develop the embedded-atom method [Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 1285 (1983)], based on density-functional theory, as a new means of calculating ground-state properties of realistic metal systems. We derive an expression for the total energy of a metal using the embedding energy from which we obtain several ground-state properties, such as the lattice constant, elastic constants, sublimation energy, and vacancy-formation energy. We obtain the embedding energy and accompanying pair potentials semiempirically for Ni and Pd, and use these to treat several problems: surface energy and relaxation of the (100), (110), and (111) faces; properties of H in bulk metal (H migration, binding of H to vacancies, and lattice expansion in the hydride phase); binding site and adsorption energy of hydrogen on (100), (110), and (111) surfaces; and lastly, fracture of Ni and the effects of hydrogen on the fracture. We emphasize problems with hydrogen and with surfaces because none of these can be treated with pair potentials. The agreement with experiment, the applicability to practical problems, and the simplicity of the technique make it an effective tool for atomistic studies of defects in metals.

5,912 citations

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TL;DR: A consistent set of embedding functions and pair interactions for use with the embedded-atom method was determined empirically by fitting to the sublimation energy, equilibrium lattice constant, elastic constants, and vacancy-formation energies of the pure metals and the heats of solution of the binary alloys as discussed by the authors.

Abstract: A consistent set of embedding functions and pair interactions for use with the embedded-atom method [M.S. Daw and M. I. Baskes, Phys. Rev. B 29, 6443 (1984)] have been determined empirically to describe the fcc metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, and Pt as well as alloys containing these metals. The functions are determined empirically by fitting to the sublimation energy, equilibrium lattice constant, elastic constants, and vacancy-formation energies of the pure metals and the heats of solution of the binary alloys. The validity of the functions is tested by computing a wide range of properties: the formation volume and migration energy of vacancies, the formation energy, formation volume, and migration energy of divacancies and self-interstitials, the surface energy and geometries of the low-index surfaces of the pure metals, and the segregation energy of substitutional impurities to (100) surfaces.

3,734 citations