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Surface micromachining

About: Surface micromachining is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11465 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 241467 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Marc A. Unger1, Hou-Pu Chou1, Todd Thorsen1, Axel Scherer1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
07 Apr 2000-Science
TL;DR: An extension to the soft lithography paradigm, multilayersoft lithography, with which devices consisting of multiple layers may be fabricated from soft materials is described, to build active microfluidic systems containing on-off valves, switching valves, and pumps entirely out of elastomer.

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Abstract: Soft lithography is an alternative to silicon-based micromachining that uses replica molding of nontraditional elastomeric materials to fabricate stamps and microfluidic channels. We describe here an extension to the soft lithography paradigm, multilayer soft lithography, with which devices consisting of multiple layers may be fabricated from soft materials. We used this technique to build active microfluidic systems containing on-off valves, switching valves, and pumps entirely out of elastomer. The softness of these materials allows the device areas to be reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared with silicon-based devices. The other advantages of soft lithography, such as rapid prototyping, ease of fabrication, and biocompatibility, are retained.

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4,082 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Rafael R. Gattass1, Eric Mazur1Institutions (1)
01 Apr 2008-Nature Photonics
Abstract: Femtosecond laser micromachining can be used either to remove materials or to change a material's properties, and can be applied to both absorptive and transparent substances. Over the past decade, this technique has been used in a broad range of applications, from waveguide fabrication to cell ablation. This review describes the physical mechanisms and the main experimental parameters involved in the femtosecond laser micromachining of transparent materials, and important emerging applications of the technology. Interactions between laser and matter are fascinating and have found a wide range of applications. This article gives an overview of the fundamental physical mechanisms in the processing of transparent materials using ultrafast lasers, as well as important emerging applications of the technology.

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2,263 citations


Book
01 Jan 2002-
Abstract: LITHOGRAPHY Introduction Historical Note: Lithography's Origins Photolithography Overview Critical Dimension, Overall Resolution, Line-Width Lithographic Sensitivity and Intrinsic Resist Sensitivity (Photochemical Quantum Efficiency) Resist Profiles Contrast and Experimental Determination of Lithographic Sensitivity Resolution in Photolithography Photolithography Resolution Enhancement Technology Beyond Moore's Law Next Generation Lithographies Emerging Lithography Technologies PATTERN TRANSFER WITH DRY ETCHING TECHNIQUES Introduction Dry Etching: Definitions and Jargon Plasmas or Discharges Physical Etching: Ion Etching or Sputtering and Ion-Beam Milling Plasma Etching (Radical Etching) Physical/Chemical Etching PATTERN TRANSFER WITH ADDITIVE TECHNIQUES Introduction Silicon Growth Doping of Si Oxidation of Silicon Physical Vapor Deposition Chemical Vapor Deposition Silk-Screening or Screen-Printing Sol-Gel Deposition Technique Doctors' Blade or Tape Casting Plasma Spraying Deposition and Arraying Methods of Organic Layers in BIOMEMS Thin versus Thick Film Deposition Selection Criteria for Deposition Method WET BULK MICROMACHINING Introduction Historical Note Silicon Crystallography Silicon As Substrate Silicon As A Mechanical Element In MEMS Wet Isotropic And Anisotropic Etching Alignment Patterns Chemical Etching Models Etching With Bias And/Or Illumination Of The Semiconductor Etch-Stop Techniques Problems With Wet Bulk Micromachining SURFACE MICROMACHINING Introduction Historical Note Mechanical Properties of Thin Films Surface Micromachining Processes Poly-Si Surface Micromachining Modifications Non-Poly-Si Surface Micromachining Modifications Materials Case Studies LIGA AND MICROMOLDING Introduction LIGA-Background LIGA and LIGA-Like Process Steps A COMPARISON OF MINIATURIZATION TECHNIQUES: TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM-UP MANUFACTURING Introduction Absolute and Relative Tolerance in Manufacturing Historical Note: Human Manufacturing Section I: Top-Down Manufacturing Methods Section II: Bottom-Up Approaches MODELING, BRAINS, PACKAGING, SAMPLE PREPARATION AND NEW MEMS MATERIALS Introduction Modeling Brains In Miniaturization Packaging Substrate Choice SCALING, ACTUATORS, AND POWER IN MINIATURIZED SYSTEMS Introduction Scaling Actuators Fluidics Scaling In Analytical Separation Equipment Other Actuators Integrated Power MINIATURIZATION APPLICATIONS Introduction Definitions and Classification Method Decision Three OVERALL MARKET For MICROMACHINES Introduction Why Use Miniaturization Technology ? From Perception to Realization Overall MEMS Market Size MEMS Market Character MEMS Based on Si Non-Silicon MEMS MEMS versus Traditional Precision Engineering The Times are a'Changing APPENDICES Metrology Techniques WWW Linkpage Etch Rate for Si, SiO2 Summary of Top-Down Miniaturization Tools Listing of names of 20 amino acids & their chemical formulas Genetic code Summary of Materials and Their Properties for Microfabrication References for Detailed Market Information on Miniature Devices MEMS Companies Update Suggested Further Reading Glossary Symbols used in Text INDEX Each chapter also contains sections of examples and problems

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1,907 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
D. Jed Harrison1, Karl Fluri1, Kurt Seiler1, Zhonghui Fan1  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
13 Aug 1993-Science
Abstract: Micromachining technology was used to prepare chemical analysis systems on glass chips (1 centimeter by 2 centimeters or larger) that utilize electroosmotic pumping to drive fluid flow and electrophoretic separation to distinguish sample components. Capillaries 1 to 10 centimeters long etched in the glass (cross section, 10 micrometers by 30 micrometers) allow for capillary electrophoresis-based separations of amino acids with up to 75,000 theoretical plates in about 15 seconds, and separations of about 600 plates can be effected within 4 seconds. Sample treatment steps within a manifold of intersecting capillaries were demonstrated for a simple sample dilution process. Manipulation of the applied voltages controlled the directions of fluid flow within the manifold. The principles demonstrated in this study can be used to develop a miniaturized system for sample handling and separation with no moving parts.

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1,765 citations


01 Jan 1994-
TL;DR: Micromachining technology was used to prepare chemical analysis systems on glass chips that utilize electroosmotic pumping to drive fluid flow and electrophoretic separation to distinguish sample components with no moving parts.

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Abstract: Micromachining technology was used to prepare chemical analysis systems on glass chips (1 centimeter by 2 centimeters or larger) that utilize electroosmotic pumping to drive fluid flow and electrophoretic separation to distinguish sample components. Capillaries 1 to 10 centimeters long etched in the glass (cross section, 10 micrometers by 30 micrometers) allow for capillary electrophoresis-based separations of amino acids with up to 75,000 theoretical plates in about 15 seconds, and separations of about 600 plates can be effected within 4 seconds. Sample treatment steps within a manifold of intersecting capillaries were demonstrated for a simple sample dilution process. Manipulation of the applied voltages controlled the directions of fluid flow within the manifold. The principles demonstrated in this study can be used to develop a miniaturized system for sample handling and separation with no moving parts.

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1,380 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20229
2021173
2020183
2019208
2018184
2017232

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Masayoshi Esashi

68 papers, 2.3K citations

Hiroyuki Fujita

59 papers, 913 citations

Xinxin Li

57 papers, 978 citations

Pasqualina M. Sarro

44 papers, 1.4K citations

Butrus T. Khuri-Yakub

42 papers, 2.4K citations