About: Surface modification is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 35544 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 859567 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jun 2005-Biomaterials
TL;DR: This review discusses the synthetic chemistry, fluid stabilization and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their use for above biomedical applications.
Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with appropriate surface chemistry have been widely used experimentally for numerous in vivo applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, tissue repair, immunoassay, detoxification of biological fluids, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation, etc. All these biomedical and bioengineering applications require that these nanoparticles have high magnetization values and size smaller than 100 nm with overall narrow particle size distribution, so that the particles have uniform physical and chemical properties. In addition, these applications need special surface coating of the magnetic particles, which has to be not only non-toxic and biocompatible but also allow a targetable delivery with particle localization in a specific area. To this end, most work in this field has been done in improving the biocompatibility of the materials, but only a few scientific investigations and developments have been carried out in improving the quality of magnetic particles, their size distribution, their shape and surface in addition to characterizing them to get a protocol for the quality control of these particles. Nature of surface coatings and their subsequent geometric arrangement on the nanoparticles determine not only the overall size of the colloid but also play a significant role in biokinetics and biodistribution of nanoparticles in the body. The types of specific coating, or derivatization, for these nanoparticles depend on the end application and should be chosen by keeping a particular application in mind, whether it be aimed at inflammation response or anti-cancer agents. Magnetic nanoparticles can bind to drugs, proteins, enzymes, antibodies, or nucleotides and can be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumour using an external magnetic field or can be heated in alternating magnetic fields for use in hyperthermia. This review discusses the synthetic chemistry, fluid stabilization and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their use for above biomedical applications.
TL;DR: A review of surface modification techniques for titanium and titanium alloys can be found in this article, where the authors have shown that the wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and biological properties can be improved selectively using the appropriate surface treatment techniques while the desirable bulk attributes of the materials are retained.
Abstract: Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, in order to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. This article reviews the various surface modification technologies pertaining to titanium and titanium alloys including mechanical treatment, thermal spraying, sol–gel, chemical and electrochemical treatment, and ion implantation from the perspective of biomedical engineering. Recent work has shown that the wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and biological properties of titanium and titanium alloys can be improved selectively using the appropriate surface treatment techniques while the desirable bulk attributes of the materials are retained. The proper surface treatment expands the use of titanium and titanium alloys in the biomedical fields. Some of the recent applications are also discussed in this paper.
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks and other activated carbons is given, focusing on surface oxides with emphasis on the chemical methods used in the assessment and identification of surface functional groups.
Abstract: A review is given on the surface chemistry of carbon blacks and other carbons, in particular, activated carbons. The main part is devoted to surface oxides with emphasis on the chemical methods used in the assessment and identification of surface functional groups. Their formation under mild conditions and the influence of water vapor and metal catalysts on the reaction with air (“aging” of carbons) are described. Reaction with free organic radicals can be used for the functionalization of carbon surfaces.
17 Jun 2008-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-analyses of the physical and chemical properties of Boron-Doped Diamond for Electrochemistry as well as a mechanistic analysis of the properties of the diamond itself and some of its applications.
Abstract: 3.6.1. Polishing and Cleaning 2663 3.6.2. Vacuum and Heat Treatments 2664 3.6.3. Carbon Electrode Activation 2665 3.7. Summary and Generalizations 2666 4. Advanced Carbon Electrode Materials 2666 4.1. Microfabricated Carbon Thin Films 2666 4.2. Boron-Doped Diamond for Electrochemistry 2668 4.3. Fibers and Nanotubes 2669 4.4. Carbon Composite Electrodes 2674 5. Carbon Surface Modification 2675 5.1. Diazonium Ion Reduction 2675 5.2. Thermal and Photochemical Modifications 2679 5.3. Amine and Carboxylate Oxidation 2680 5.4. Modification by “Click” Chemistry 2681 6. Synopsis and Outlook 2681 7. Acknowledgments 2682 8. References 2682
03 Jun 2002-Angewandte Chemie
TL;DR: Through chemical functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the prerequisites for possible applications of such nanostructures are established and the current state of the literature is presented in this Minireview.
Abstract: Through chemical functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the prerequisites for possible applications of such nanostructures are established. The derivatized tubes differ from the crude materials in their good solubility, which enables both a more extensive characterization and subsequent chemical reactivity. Current derivatization methods include defect and covalent sidewall functionalization, as well as noncovalent exo- and endohedral functionalization. In this way, for example, a range of nanotubes can be prepared: with sidewall substituents, wrapped with polymers, or with guest molecules included. The current state of the literature is presented in this Minireview.
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