About: Surface water is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 25507 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 613520 citation(s). The topic is also known as: water on surface & onground water.
20 Jul 1994-Journal of Geophysical Research
Abstract: A generalization of the single soil layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC) land surface hydrological model previously implemented in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation model (GCM) is described. The new model is comprised of a two-layer characterization of the soil column, and uses an aerodynamic representation of the latent and sensible heat fluxes at the land surface. The infiltration algorithm for the upper layer is essentially the same as for the single layer VIC model, while the lower layer drainage formulation is of the form previously implemented in the Max-Planck-Institut GCM. The model partitions the area of interest (e.g., grid cell) into multiple land surface cover types; for each land cover type the fraction of roots in the upper and lower zone is specified. Evapotranspiration consists of three components: canopy evaporation, evaporation from bare soils, and transpiration, which is represented using a canopy and architectural resistance formulation. Once the latent heat flux has been computed, the surface energy balance is iterated to solve for the land surface temperature at each time step. The model was tested using long-term hydrologic and climatological data for Kings Creek, Kansas to estimate and validate the hydrological parameters, and surface flux data from three First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) intensive field campaigns in the summer-fall of 1987 to validate the surface energy fluxes.
01 Jan 1982-
Abstract: 1 The Hydrologic Cycle 2 Chemical Background 3 Organic Compounds in Natural Waters 4 The Carbonate System and pH Control 5 Clay Minerals and Ion Exchange 6 Stability Relationships and Silicate Equilibria 7 Kinetics 8 Weathering and Water Chemistry, I: Principles 9 Weathering and Water Chemistry, II: Examples 10 Acid Deposition and Surface Water Chemistry 11 Evaporation and Saline Waters 12 The Oceans 13 Redox Equilibria 14 Redox Conditions in Natural Waters 15 Trace Elements 16 Mathematical and Numerical Models 17 Isotopes Appendices
Ronald J. Gibbs1•Institutions (1)
04 Dec 1970-Science
TL;DR: On the basis of analytical chemical data for numerous rain, river, lake, and ocean samples, the three major mechanisms controlling world surface water chemistry can be defined as atmospheric precipitation, rock dominance, and the evaporation-crystallization process.
Abstract: On the basis of analytical chemical data for numerous rain, river, lake, and ocean samples, the three major mechanisms controlling world surface water chemistry can be defined as atmospheric precipitation, rock dominance, and the evaporation-crystallization process.
20 Aug 2009-Nature
TL;DR: The available evidence suggests that unsustainable consumption of groundwater for irrigation and other anthropogenic uses is likely to be the cause of groundwater depletion in northwest India and the consequences for the 114,000,000 residents of the region may include a reduction of agricultural output and shortages of potable water, leading to extensive socioeconomic stresses.
Abstract: Groundwater is a primary source of fresh water in many parts of the world. Some regions are becoming overly dependent on it, consuming groundwater faster than it is naturally replenished and causing water tables to decline unremittingly 1 . Indirect evidencesuggeststhatthisisthecaseinnorthwestIndia 2 ,butthere has been no regional assessment of the rate of groundwater depletion. Here we use terrestrial water storage-change observations from the NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites 3 and simulated soil-water variations from a dataintegrating hydrological modelling system 4 to show that groundwater is being depleted at a mean rate of 4.0 61.0cmyr 21 equivalent height of water (17.7 64.5km 3 yr 21 ) over the Indian states
01 May 1996-Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences
Abstract: Changes of the isotopic composition of water within the water cycle provide a recognizable signature, relating such water to the different phases of the cycle. The isotope fractionations that accompany the evaporation from the ocean and other surface waters and the reverse process of rain formation account for the most notable changes. As a result, meteoric waters are depleted in the heavy isotopic species of H and O relative to ocean waters, whereas waters in evaporative systems such as lakes, plants, and soilwaters are relatively enriched. During the passage through the aquifers, the isotope composition of water is essentially a conservative property at ambient temperatures, but at elevated temperatures, interaction with the rock matrix may perturb the isotope composition. These changes of the isotope composition in atmospheric waters, surface water, soil, and groundwaters, as well as in the biosphere, are applied in the characterization of hydrological system as well as indicators of paleo-climatological conditions in proxy materials in climatic archives, such as ice, lake sediments, or organic materials.